Siddhars from ancient India are also known to have defined samudrika lakshanam that identifies personal characteristics with body features. Chinese physiognomy or face reading mianxiang reaches back at least to the Northern Song period. By the fourth century BC, the philosopher Aristotle made frequent reference to theory and literature concerning the relationship of appearance to character. Aristotle was apparently receptive to such an idea, as evidenced by a passage in his Prior Analytics: It is possible to infer character from features, if it is granted that the body and the soul are changed together by the natural affections: I say "natural", for though perhaps by learning music a man has made some change in his soul, this is not one of those affections natural to us; rather I refer to passions and desires when I speak of natural emotions. If then this were granted and also that for each change there is a corresponding sign, and we could state the affection and sign proper to each kind of animal , we shall be able to infer character from features.
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Bentley, Jr. As to that false appearance which appears to the reasoner. William Blake, Milton [? By , there were 16 versions of the Physiognomy in German, 15 in French, 2 in the US, 2 in Russian, 1 in Dutch, 1 in Italian, 20 in English, and by the s there had been publications of it Graham lists the Hunter folio editions as 1 ; 2 ; 3 , in which the second and third entries seem to me to be significantly inaccurate.
Henry G. Bohn, I, Vol. II Parts i and ii, and Vol. II-III have no titlepages. As the three titlepages are dated , , and , this edition is identified here as that of The description on the titlepages of Vol. I , Vol. II , and Vol. Lavater, Essays on Physiognomy [first edition] Vol. II [i. It generated additional interest when the leaders of the Blake revival noticed that it had prints by William Blake. Nurmi in The work suffered in a number of ways as it passed through the press.
For one thing, the original publisher, John Murray [I] died on 6 November , not long after the titlepage to the second volume had been issued For another, the cost of the engravings, the major expense of the work, far exceeded the receipts from the subscriptions for the fascicles, at least for a time. Despite these difficulties, the work was finally finished in , and a very handsome work it was.
And even then it was not noticed how odd it is to have a complete edition dated finished before the first edition of was accomplished. The chief printed distinctions between the first edition of the Hunter translation and its successors are little more than in the dates and the publishers on the titlepage John Murray in , John Murray in , Thomas Stockdale in The titlepages of the first Hunter edition see illus.
III , the second in , and the third in And the Blake prints did not seem to change significantly in any of them. Then, when the last changes in the text of Blake Books Supplement were being sent off to the press in the autumn of , I received a puzzled letter from Stewart Naunton then unknown to me who had been given a set of the Lavater, and, in making a more meticulous examination of it than any professional bibliographer apparently had done, Naunton had discovered that what he had was a rogue.
This was very worrying. This seemed a remarkably irregular, not the say inefficient, way to use paper. Did other sets duplicate these oddities? I , p. The setting of type is virtually identical in the first edition of the Hunter translation , on watermarked and paper, and on the third edition ? I [i.
The setting of type here is scarcely distinguishable from that in the first edition see illus. Of course making a record of all the watermarks in five fat volumes is immensely laborious—and a feat which apparently no bibliographer had previously attempted.
But J. Samuel Hammond, Rare Book Librarian at Duke University, recorded every watermark in the first volume, including laid or wove paper without letters or numbers, and Karen Herbaugh, Student Assistant at the Kerr Library of Oregon State University, provided me with a list of watermarks on every leaf in all five volumes.
I am deeply in the debt of all the librarians who responded so generously to my queries and especially to Hammond and Herbaugh. The results are yet more curious than my first warning had led me to expect. In the first place, a very surprising variety of paper was used. The second oddity is the way in which the paper was used. This is a very peculiar way to print, with a different kind of paper in the stack for each gathering. Instead, each stack of sheets was apparently of mixed watermarks for each gathering.
LAVATER ESSAYS ON PHYSIOGNOMY PDF
Corruption fighter[ edit ] At barely twenty-one years of age, Lavater greatly distinguished himself by denouncing, in conjunction with his friend Henry Fuseli the painter, an iniquitous magistrate, who was compelled to make restitution of his ill-gotten gains. His oratorical fervor and genuine depth of conviction gave him great personal influence; he was extensively consulted as a casuist , and was welcomed with enthusiasm on his journeys throughout Germany. His writings on mysticism were widely popular as well. He introduced the idea that physiognomy related to the specific character traits of individuals, rather than general types. The most accurate of readings were facilitated by the tracing of a profile outline portrait.
Essays on Physiognomy