Works of Art 9 Essay After the last Ice Age, as the climate became warmer and rainfall more abundant, the nomadic population of the eastern Mediterranean began to establish the first permanent settlements. During this period of scientific exploration, hundreds of sites were uncovered, not just Natufian but also from preceding and succeeding periods. These archaeological activities contributed enormously to our current understanding of the prehistoric record of this region. The Natufians were the first people of the eastern Mediterranean area to establish permanent villages. Prior to the Natufians, bands of people had moved seasonally, to follow animals for hunting and to gather available plants. The Natufians, while still hunters and foragers, settled in villages year-round, relying on the natural resources of their immediate area.

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At the time of its Natufian inhabitance, the area was heavily forested in oak, almond, and pistachio trees. The first two phases had massive stone-built structures with smaller ones in the third phase. These phases occurred from 12, to BCE. The dwellings were cut into the earth, had subterranean floors, and walls that were built of dry stone. Wooden posts supported the roofs, which were probably thatches with brushwood or animal hides.

Kenyon describes the Natufian village as consisting of 50 circular, semi-subterranean, one-room huts, paved with flat slabs and surrounded by stone walls up to 1. The inhabitants used hand mortars for grinding wild nuts and grain, and stone sickles for cutting plants from wild stands.

Many of these sickle stones hold " sickle-gloss ," indicating they had been used to cut large numbers of plant stems, most likely wild wheat and barley. Burial customs[ edit ] It is likely that entire families were buried in the remains of their own houses, the houses being subsequently abandoned. During excavation, Perrot found one dwelling to contain the graves of 11 men, women, and children, many of them wearing elaborate decorations made from dentalium shells.

In another dwelling , twelve individuals were found, one buried with her hand resting on the body of a small puppy. Perrot, M.


'Ain Mallaha

The battle, as described by Qalanisi, was bloody and quick, resulting in decisive victory for the Muslim forces, who are reported to have lost only two men, [11] with the king narrowly escaping with a bodyguard. The Itinerary of Richard I notes that the army had advanced to Merla, "where the king had spent one of the previous nights. The structures have been assumed to belong to a sugar-producing installation. Sufi traveller al-Bakri al-Siddiqi passed by the village in the mid-eighteenth century. Robinson observed that Ain el-Mallaha lay northwest of Lake Hula, and was "a single large fountain.




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