Precisely, on January 1, , Britain, a former colonial power gave birth to the nation, Nigeria through series of diplomatic initiatives and conquests that led to the amalgamation of the ethnically and cultural incongruent Northern and Southern Protectorates. This, unquestionably, according to Eleazu, explains that Nigeria became a British colony as a result of the diplomacy of imperialism than a matter of choice for any of the peoples that were to be enclosed within this grid that came to be recognized and administered as one territorial unit called Nigeria Eleazu, Obviously, this history of crises was a result of the decision to merge the various incompatible entities as one. Incompatibility among the various groups was further aggravated by political disturbances that engulfed the Nigerian especially the early post-independence years.
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Precisely, on January 1, , Britain, a former colonial power gave birth to the nation, Nigeria through series of diplomatic initiatives and conquests that led to the amalgamation of the ethnically and cultural incongruent Northern and Southern Protectorates. This, unquestionably, according to Eleazu, explains that Nigeria became a British colony as a result of the diplomacy of imperialism than a matter of choice for any of the peoples that were to be enclosed within this grid that came to be recognized and administered as one territorial unit called Nigeria Eleazu, Obviously, this history of crises was a result of the decision to merge the various incompatible entities as one.
Incompatibility among the various groups was further aggravated by political disturbances that engulfed the Nigerian especially the early post-independence years. Threatened by a state of total collapse after a period of bloody military coups the Nigerian Army went to Aburi in search of peace.
Many years after the war the present leaders of the nation ought to have learnt a great lesson of history. More recently, a new form of crisis reminiscent of the pogrom is engulfing other states in the north including the Federal Capital Territory FCT , Abuja Amamkpa Very unfortunately, 46 years after Aburi and the civil war, the current trend of insecurity still cast shadows of doubts on national unity prompting plethora of demands for national conference, sovereign national confab, true federalism, political autonomy, restructuring Nigeria into six geo-political zones, financial autonomy to local government and a resistance to any change of status quo.
In a build-up to Aburi and the Civil war, , scholars and experts have reeled out a number of factors responsible for crises of those ominous years. These factors which include: political, social, economic, religious, etc are interwoven and could not be considered as terra incognita as far as the geo-political developments in Nigeria are concerned.
Amidst the myriad of political sub-factors, the role of Aburi Accord in starting the war was, more often than not, considered the last straw. This statement was corroborated by several other scholars who pointed to the Aburi Accord as the last gap in that circle of conflict. In a build-up to the Aburi conference, Nigeria was dragged to the brink of the abyss by two military coups in One of the far-reaching implications was a stalemate between two military leaders Gowon and Ojukwu.
The reason for the face-off, which invariably dominated the agenda of the Aburi conference, was predicated on the following: The leadership and restructuring of the Nigerian Army The compensation and relocation of victims of the Pogrom After several unfruitful attempts to bring Gowon and Ojukwu to the negotiating table, Aburi, a more secured venue, in Ghana, was mutually agreed upon by both parties while General Ankrah offered to host them in a bid to restore the country from the brink.
Given this obvious national exigency, it was expected that both parties will have the ample time to iron out any seemingly irreconcilable differences and as such must be armed to the teeth in terms of preparation. The implication of the bargaining capabilities of Federal side in the negotiation entailed, rather, another more besetting monster of the Nigerian system- the challenge of policy implementation. And historical excursion into the annals of public policy in Nigeria reveals that, if all the policies formulated in the country over the years were implemented accordingly, Nigeria, no doubt, would have been on a fast lane of development.
It conjures the meaning that a full implementation of the Aburi Accord could have saved the country a great deal of human and material resources lost during the civil war. Apparently, this prospective tool of unity incidentally became an apple of discord among Nigerians.
The nexus between the exponents and contrary opinions generated around the Accord is what this study is set to explore. In finding the answer, it required, in part, a political dialogue to reach a consensus on how best the ethnic bodies would exist without having unnecessary frictions This was the main thrust of the Aburi Agreement.
Against the background of full implementation of the accord, the Nigerian government therefore resorted to the famous lines of John F. Quasi-implementation of the Aburi Accord, overtime, became the oft-quoted instance for the Civil war. This study highlights the misinterpretation of the Aburi document; proposes important constitutional variables needing urgent national attention. It aims at highlighting lapses, historically, in pre-conference, Aburi document and post-conference report dilemmas surrounding the Aburi Accord.
The study further examines, historically, the circumstances that gave birth to the meeting at Aburi on the 4th and 5th of January, under the auspices of General Joseph Ankrah of Ghana. The work also analyzes, in critical terms, the content of the Aburi Agreement as a constitutional document that seeks to achieve a slightly decentralized form of government with the aim of handing the regions some level of autonomy in their quest for social, political, economic independence.
It shall also examine the operations and performance of key actors in the conference and the strategies adopted to score vital points and influence the outcome of the conference.
The works also aims at assisting the need for government to revisit the Aburi documents with the intention to apply and coordinate some or even all the recommendations the conference political, economic, military, and diplomatic to achieve national unity objectives.
The work will also critically analyze the roles of various individuals and groups and to what extent these groups influenced the outcome of the January agreement reached between Gowon and Ojukwu in Aburi Ghana. The major consideration here is how relevant is the Accord to current political issues that look every inch like the political climate of Was the partial implementation actually a move to save the country from collapse?
Were the Easterners wrong in pressing home for a fuller implementation? First, the Accord was to serve as the last resort to the problem of political instability but the outcome blindly guided the negotiators to the point of no return.
The impacts of the Accord on the Civil War were those orchestrated, on the one hand, by the two factions in the conference spear-headed by Ojukwu and Gowon, and on the other hand, by the Federal government permanent secretaries who made a post-conference analyses and recommendations to General Gowon. Thus, the work covers the roles of these individuals in the saga. The importance of historical past- especially a well-documented one- to contemporary events cannot be overemphasized.
Again, behind every event in history is a deep-rooted cause traceable to certain preconditions and precipitants. To this end, this work is neither centered on the events that took place at the Peduase house at Aburi, nor is it concerned with its impact on the war alone.
Rather, it traces the idea of hosting the meeting in Ghana to series of tensions created before and after the coups. The work also covers the post-civil war era as it relates to the relevance of the Aburi Agreement to the present day political development.
It has enough substance to serve as literature on the subject. It will serve as a source for future researchers having interest on this topic. The timing of the work is invariably analogous to the events of citing the current wave of systematic killings in the North perpetrated by members of Boko Haram against Easterners. Since history appears to be replaying itself, it must not be allowed to de-generate to another helpless state of total war as it is currently clamoured from different quarters Godwin, Therefore, this study presents a practical reference point, as to what lessons can be derived, following the breakdown of Aburi negotiations.
It creates greater awareness on the need for the present and the upcoming generations to learn from the dynamics of that momentous history and use the available information to construct a future that will give no place to such disastrous history. It has been my desire to intimate the general public on the importance of the researching on the implications of the Aburi Accord on the Civil war and the post-civil war Nigeria.
The research will open up other dimensions and perspectives of analyzing the Aburi agreement. The reason is understandably due to paucity of published works which have specifically dealt on the Aburi Accord. There hardly has been any separate and conscientious effort to study this highly controversial and unresolved national question. Virtually all the texts-both foreign and local- consulted on the Nigerian Civil War have devoted few chapters and a number of pages, while others at best have made a passing mention of the subject.
Hence, reviewing literatures on Aburi specifically apart from the concepts mentioned above derives from articles, commentaries and excerpts of the original document of the Aburi Peace Accord.
Aburi Accord: You goofed – David-West tells Agbakoba
What is Aburi Conference all about? Aburi Accord was not for confederacy of Nigeria. Ojukwu wanted to legitimise Biafra. Gowon wanted to legitimise the extant one Nigeria indivisibility. Furthermore, Ojukwu himself later on abandoned his pipe dream of Biafra. Yes indeed, vice-president of Nigeria.