Early life[ edit ] Manzoni was born in Milan , Italy, on 7 March In his parents broke their marriage  and his mother began a relationship with the writer Carlo Imbonati , moving to England and later to Paris. For this reason, Alessandro was brought up in several religious institutes. Manzoni was a slow developer, and at the various colleges he attended he was considered a dunce. At fifteen, however, he developed a passion for poetry and wrote two sonnets of considerable merit. Upon the death of his father in , he joined the freethinking household of his mother at Auteuil , and spent two years mixing with the literary set of the so-called " ideologues ", philosophers of the 18th-century school, among whom he made many friends, notably Claude Charles Fauriel.
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Early life[ edit ] Manzoni was born in Milan , Italy, on 7 March In his parents broke their marriage  and his mother began a relationship with the writer Carlo Imbonati , moving to England and later to Paris. For this reason, Alessandro was brought up in several religious institutes. Manzoni was a slow developer, and at the various colleges he attended he was considered a dunce.
At fifteen, however, he developed a passion for poetry and wrote two sonnets of considerable merit. Upon the death of his father in , he joined the freethinking household of his mother at Auteuil , and spent two years mixing with the literary set of the so-called " ideologues ", philosophers of the 18th-century school, among whom he made many friends, notably Claude Charles Fauriel.
There too he imbibed the anti-Catholic creed of Voltairianism. In —, while at Auteuil, he first appeared before the public as a poet, with two works, one entitled Urania, in the classical style, of which he became later the most conspicuous adversary, the other an elegy in blank verse , on the death of Count Carlo Imbonati, from whom, through his mother, he inherited considerable property, including the villa of Brusuglio, thenceforward his principal residence.
She came from a Calvinist family, but in she became a Roman Catholic. His intellectual energy in this period of his life was devoted to the composition of the Inni sacri, a series of sacred lyrics, and of a treatise on Catholic morality, Osservazioni sulla morale cattolica, a task undertaken under religious guidance, in reparation for his early lapse from faith.
In he had to sell his paternal inheritance, as his money had been lost to a dishonest agent. His characteristic generosity was shown at this time in his dealings with his peasants, who were heavily indebted to him. He not only cancelled on the spot the record of all sums owed to him, but bade them keep for themselves the whole of the coming maize harvest. In , Manzoni published his first tragedy, Il Conte di Carmagnola , which, boldly violating all classical conventions, excited a lively controversy.
It was severely criticized in a Quarterly Review article to which Goethe replied in its defence, "one genius," as Count de Gubernatis remarks, "having divined the other. The Betrothed[ edit ] Frontispiece of The Betrothed in the second definitive edition of — Round the episode of the Innominato, historically identified with Bernardino Visconti, the first manuscript of the novel The Betrothed in Italian I promessi sposi began to grow into shape, and was completed in September The work was published, after being deeply reshaped by the author and revised by friends in —, at the rate of a volume a year; it at once raised its author to the first rank of literary fame.
It is generally agreed to be his greatest work, and the paradigm of modern Italian language. In , Manzoni published his second tragedy, Adelchi, turning on the overthrow by Charlemagne of the Lombard domination in Italy, and containing many veiled allusions to the existing Austrian rule.
But he laboriously revised The Betrothed in Tuscan-Italian, and in republished it in that form, with a historical essay, Storia della colonna infame, on details of the 17th-century plague in Milan so important in the novel. He also wrote a small treatise on the Italian language.
Teresa also died before him, while of nine children born to him in his two marriages all but two pre-deceased him. He was already weakened as he had fallen on 6 January while exiting the San Fedele church, hitting his head on the steps, and he died after 5 months of cerebral meningitis , a complication of the trauma. His funeral was celebrated in the church of San Marco with almost royal pomp.
In modern times, he has been honored twice with a Google Doodle. It is worthy of note how a layman, an excellent writer and at the same time a profound and conscientious thinker, has been able to understand well and express exactly this fundamental Catholic doctrine: The Church does not say that morality belongs purely, in the sense of exclusively, to her; but that it belongs wholly to her.
She has never maintained that outside her fold and apart from her teaching, man cannot arrive at any moral truth; she has on the contrary more than once condemned this opinion because it has appeared under more forms than one. She does however say, has said, and will ever say, that because of her institution by Jesus Christ, because of the Holy Ghost sent her in His name by the Father, she alone possesses what she has had immediately from God and can never lose, the whole of moral truth, omnem veritatem, in which all individual moral truths are included, as well those which man may learn by the help of reason, as those which form part of revelation or which may be deduced from it".
[PDF] The Betrothed Book by Alessandro Manzoni Free Download (720 pages)
Shelves: literature , italian-lit When I began this novel, I was not sure whether I would complete it. The reason: I began it in the wrong time, that is, when I had many other responsibilities. So it could never have served as a gap filler in the days. Also, a thick volume would entail many days in such a tight schedule. I was sure to be discouraged. But as the book came in the package and as I began to read it I was immediately fascinated by the characters and the place described. I gave it a try and now I have completed the When I began this novel, I was not sure whether I would complete it.
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The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Betrothed, by Alessandro Manzoni, et al
In the early 19th century, there was still controversy as to what form the standard literary language of Italy should take. Chapters 1—8: Flight from the village[ edit ] A view of the Lake Como , chapter 1, engraving by Francesco Gonin — Renzo and Lucia, a couple living in a village in Lombardy , near Lecco , on Lake Como , are planning to wed on 8 November The parish priest, don Abbondio, is walking home on the eve of the wedding when he is accosted by two " bravi " thugs who warn him not to perform the marriage, because the local baron Don Rodrigo has forbidden it. An argument ensues and Renzo succeeds in extracting from the priest the name of Don Rodrigo. It turns out that Don Rodrigo has his eye on Lucia and that he had a bet about her with his cousin Count Attilio. Azzeccagarbugli" Dr. Azzeccagarbugli is at first sympathetic: thinking Renzo is actually the perpetrator, he shows Renzo a recent edict on the subject of priests who refuse to perform marriage, but when he hears the name of Don Rodrigo, he panics and drives Renzo away.