Read preview Synopsis Providing an accessible introduction to the study of word-formation, this text focuses specifically on English. Students are encouraged to undertake their own morphological analysis of English words, and are introduced to the methodological tools for obtaining and analyzing relevant data. Excerpt The existence of words is usually taken for granted by the speakers of a language. To speak and understand a language means — among many other things — knowing the words of that language.
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To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. Basic concepts 4 1. What is a word? Studying word-formation 12 1. Inflection and derivation 18 1. Summary 23 Further reading 23 Exercises 24 2. Studying complex words 25 2. Identifying morphemes 25 2. The morpheme as the minimal linguistic sign 25 2. Problems with the morpheme: the mapping of form and meaning 27 2.
Allomorphy 33 2. Establishing word-formation rules 38 2. Multiple affixation 50 2. Summary 53 Further reading 54 Exercises 55 3. Productivity and the mental lexicon 55 1 3. Introduction: What is productivity? Possible and actual words 56 1 3. Complex words in the lexicon 59 3. Measuring productivity 64 1 Pages appear twice due to software-induced layout-alterations that occur when the word for windows files are converted into PDF.
Constraining productivity 73 3. Pragmatic restrictions 74 3. Structural restrictions 75 3. Blocking 79 3. Summary 84 Further reading 85 Exercises 85 4. Affixation 90 4. What is an affix? How to investigate affixes: More on methodology 93 4.
General properties of English affixation 98 4. Suffixes 4. Nominal suffixes 4. Verbal suffixes 4. Adjectival suffixes 4. Adverbial suffixes 4. Prefixes 4. Infixation 4. Summary Further reading Exercises 5. Derivation without affixation 5. Conversion 5. The directionality of conversion 5.
Conversion or zero-affixation? Conversion: Syntactic or morphological? Prosodic morphology 5. Truncations: Truncated names, -y diminutives and clippings 5. Blends iii 5. Abbreviations and acronyms 5. Summary Further reading Exercises 6.
Compounding 6. Recognizing compounds 6. What are compounds made of? More on the structure of compounds: the notion of head 6. Stress in compounds 6. Summary 6.
An inventory of compounding patterns 6. Nominal compounds 6. Interpreting nominal compounds 6. Adjectival compounds 6. Verbal compounds 6. Neo-classical compounds 6. Compounding: syntax or morphology? Summary Further reading Exercises 7. Theoretical issues: modeling word-formation 7. Introduction: Why theory? The phonology-morphology interaction: lexical phonology 7. An outline of the theory of lexical phonology 7. Basic insights of lexical phonology 7. Problems with lexical phonology 7.
Alternative theories 7. The nature of word-formation rules iv 7. The problem: word-based versus morpheme-based morphology 7. Morpheme-based morphology 7. Word-based morphology 7. The average speaker knows thousands of words, and new words enter our minds and our language on a daily basis. This book is about words. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.
Take, for example, the very word meaningful, which could be argued to consist of two elements, meaning and -ful, or even three, mean, -ing, and -ful. We will address the question of how such words are related to other words and how the language allows speakers to create new words. For example, meaningful seems to be clearly related to colorful, but perhaps less so to awful or plentiful. Under the assumption that language is a rule-governed system, it should be possible to find meaningful answers to such questions.
This area of study is traditionally referred to as word-formation and the present book is mainly concerned with word-formation in one particular language, English. As a textbook for an undergraduate readership it presupposes very little or no prior knowledge of linguistics and introduces and explains linguistic terminology and theoretical apparatus as we go along.
The purpose of the book is to enable the students to engage in and enjoy! After having worked with the book, the reader should be familiar with the necessary and most recent methodological tools to obtain relevant data introspection, electronic text collections, various types of dictionaries, basic psycholinguistic experiments, internet resources , should be able to systematically analyze their data and to relate their findings to theoretical problems and debates.
The book is not written in the 2 perspective of a particular theoretical framework and draws on insights from various research traditions. Word-formation in English can be used as a textbook for a course on word- formation or the word-formation parts of morphology courses , as a source-book for teachers, for student research projects, as a book for self-study by more advanced students e. The more advanced exercises include proper research tasks, which also give the students the opportunity to use the different methodological tools introduced in the text.
Students can control their learning success by comparing their results with the answer key provided at the end of the book. The answer key features two kinds of answers. Instead, methodological problems and possible lines of analysis are discussed. Each chapter is also followed by a list of recommended further readings.
Those who consult the book as a general reference on English word-formation may check author, subject and affix indices and the bibliography in order to quickly find what they need. Chapter 3 introduces most recent developments in research methodology, and short descriptions of individual affixes are located in chapter 4 As every reader knows, English is spoken by hundreds of millions speakers and there exist numerous varieties of English around the world.
The variety that has been taken as a reference for this book is General American English. The reason for this choice is purely practical, it is the variety the author knows best.
With regard to most of the phenomena discussed in this book, different varieties of English pattern very much alike. However, especially concerning aspects of pronunciation there are sometimes remarkable, though perhaps minor, differences observable between different varieties.
Mostly for reasons of space, but also due to the lack of pertinent studies, these differences will not be discussed here. However, I hope that the book will enable the readers to adapt and relate the findings presented with reference to American English to the variety of English they are most familiar with.
Chapters 1 through 3 introduce the basic notions needed for the study and description of word-internal structure chapter 1 , the problems that arise with the implementation of the said notions in the actual analysis of complex words in English chapter 2 , and one of the central problems in word-formation, productivity chapter 3. The descriptively oriented chapters 4 through 6 deal with the different kinds of word-formation processes that can be found in English: chapter 4 discusses affixation, chapter 5 non-affixational processes, chapter 6 compounding.
Word-Formation in English (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)
To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. Basic concepts 4 1. What is a word? Studying word-formation 12 1.
Word-Formation in English (eBook, PDF)
Word-Formation in English
Word-Formation in English (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics)