First deserip- tions of beer brewing are nearly years old. In fact beer is a cultural asset which has found friends all over the world. As a source of vitality and pleasure beer brings people together whilst being good for both spirit and body. Meanwhile medical research has proven without doubt, that moderate beer consumption has a positive impact on human health, All this leads to the obligation for the brewers to make the highest demands on the quality of raw materials, the technical equipment, the pro- cesses and - last but not least - on the qualif ion of the employees. With breweries and round about beer brands brewing science and education has always been very distinetive in Germany.
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First deserip- tions of beer brewing are nearly years old. In fact beer is a cultural asset which has found friends all over the world. As a source of vitality and pleasure beer brings people together whilst being good for both spirit and body.
Meanwhile medical research has proven without doubt, that moderate beer consumption has a positive impact on human health, All this leads to the obligation for the brewers to make the highest demands on the quality of raw materials, the technical equipment, the pro- cesses and - last but not least - on the qualif ion of the employees.
With breweries and round about beer brands brewing science and education has always been very distinetive in Germany. Brewing specific research and deve- lopment - among others at the Universities in Berlin and Munich-Weihenstephan - have led to great progress in this field.
With transla- tions into. Hungarian, Polish, English, Yugoslavian, Chinese and Russian the original German edition has found its way to brewers all over the world, Knowledge is dynamic. It is continuously extended by research and development - also in the brewing and malting industries.
Current trends such as the filling of beer in PET bottles, mem- brane filtration, new methods of wort production and new applications for process control are des- cribed in detail, With numerous illustrations and his distinctive didactic style the author has succeeded again in explaining complex issues very succinctly and clearly. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the transformations, the technology and the processes in the production of malt and beer, including all related subjects.
Particular value has been placed on the integration of new insights and on putting emphasis on new techno- logy. As in the earlier editions, have attempted to present the material in an easily understanda- ble form and where possible, have made use of diagrams for the purpose of clarification, The production of beer - albeit with very dis- tinctive regional differences - has increased throughout the world in recent years.
Today beer is no longer produced and drunk solely in the classical beer countries, but all over the world. As well as the large brewing companies, which nowadays are increasingly dominating the beer market with large production plants, small bre- wing companies have become firmly established everywhere, which have gained particular signi- ficance with niche products and local lair and thus helped to make the beer landscape more interesting.
I wish the third international edition of the book every success. May it contribute to enab- ling the reader to acquire an even better under. Water use in the brewery 68 1. Activated sludge basins and troughs 2. Special reactors 3. Reactors containing immobilised biomass. Absorption cooling machines - Principle of the absorption cooling machine Space and liquid cooling Cooling of conventional fermentation and lager cellars Plant design and the requirements of the plants This re- cord shows that there must also have been irre- gularities.
In ancient Egypt, too, beer flourished widely, as can be seen from numerous illustr tions and findings Fig. It was noticed very early that beer was free from dangerous germs and that water, too, which was fiequently available in a less than perfect condition, could be purified by the fermentation process and the natural acids thereby produced For many centuries, therefore, beer - and in some areas wine - and not water, was the natural eve- ryday thirst-quencher, both for the ruler and the common man.
In Europe beer was a well loved drink of the Germanic tribes, and of the Scythians and the Celts. Beer brewer, In Germany in the Middle Ages there was a considerable difference between the conditions for beer brewing in the North and in the South.
In the North brewing was a civie right and occurred the large brewing towns such as Bremen, Hamburg or Einbeck. In Southern Germany, the transformation from home brewing to industrial brewing gradually took place in the 14th century. This is particularly important, because beer production in the early Middle Ages in the Southern region became a very widespread industry Fig 0.
In the 15th century the commercial position of the brewer became established, but it was restric- 20 ted in the South in particular by a large number of regulations . Both the organisation of the trade and also the production of the product, from purchase of raw materi ture of the final product an to municipal laws, These laws also included re- gulations about the price of yeast and quality of the yeast, which primarily looked after the inter- ests of the bakers, who obtained their yeast fom the brewers, At that time, and for a long time afterwards, the brewing trade had the monopoly on yeast production Meanwhile shortages of raw materials, as a result of poor harvests and other circumstances, led to the use of raw materials other than those previously customarily employed.
Thus hops were often replaced by other flavouring plants. To prevent any such deplorable state of affairs in future, official laws laid down that only mall, hops and water were to be used for the pro- duction of beer.
The first documentary reference is found in Article 12 of the , Statuta tha- of the Thuringian town of Weissensee, laid down in In Munich, too, the same form of documentary reference to the production of beer was made in The law was enacted in order to pro- Vide the burghers with a sufficient amount of pro- ducts at a fair price.
For these reasons the town councils regulated, in the interest of consumer protection, the manufacture of the product and established the price in relation to the product qua- lity. The purity law can therefore also be described as the first consumer protection law in the world. The Thirty Years war set the development of beer production back a long way, and at the same time, the arrival of newer drinks such as tea and coffee, led to a considerable reduction in beer output for a long time.
With the development in by James Wait of a practical, usable steam engine, the foundation stone for the introduction of new technology was laid. In the first steam engines were in use in England and they were already widespread there by , However, there was still a considerable delay before Gabriel Sedlmayr in , after a trip to England, installed the first steam engine, with a horse power rating, in his Spaten brewery in Munich, Fig.
Above all, though, the invention of the reftige- ration machine meant that man was no longer dependent on the seasons and the storage of natu- ral ice in cold winters. The Frenchman Louis Pasteur Fig. Lindner in using his drop culture method", thereby laying the foundations for biologically flawless work. As a result of this, it became increasingly possible to make use of pure yeast strains and to reduce the influence of contaminants, This was the basis for the triumph of light coloured beers, which gradu- ally displaced the customary dark Bavarian beer.
Thus in in the Municipal brewhouse in Pilsen, which later became the Pilsner Urquell brewery, the original of the Pilsner type of beer Fig. The Pilsner type beers spread eve- rywhere throughout Europe and Pilsner is still the type of beer most drunk in Germany. It should nevertheless not be forgotten that during this period, manual labour still accoun- ted for a lange share of the work Fig. Many of the breweries founded at that time exist today as giant producers with their own range of products.
Breweries founded in this intensive phase between and include, for example: Jacobsen Heineken Fig. There was an enormous amount of work invilved in cleaning the returned empty wooden barrels used for beer transport In the USA, the development of the breweries s closely linked with the settlement of the coun- try by the European immigrants, Thus, the first breweries appeared on the east coast of the coun- try and then upriver, following the founding of large cities and the expansion of the railway net- work.
Within a few years, the following brewe- ries were founded: This was marked by the founding of many new breweries, for example in Japan the Spring Valley Brewery, since the Kirin Brewery Co. Naturally, the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot was the prevailing law initially in many countries, but American brewers already knew in the s and 70s the economic advantage of using maize meal orice grits as additives.
As a result of the refining of the techniques and technology for the proces- sing of raw grain, a new type of beer was produced which has meanwhile gained global importance. In the USA beer production suffered a severe blow through the prohibition of alcohol, introdu- ced in , At that time, the breweries could only stay in existence by producing so-called near beer".
As a result of the Prohibition, which was not revoked until , criminal activity and the smuggling of alcoholic drinks had become much more widespread and so the result of the Prohibition was very negative. In Scandinavian countries, too, at this time there were substantial limitations on the production and sale of aleohol- containing beverages, and this still exists in some countries. Added to this were 36, households where tax free drinks were being brewed for home use only .
By the number of operating breweries had fallen to 7,, mainly because of the foun- ding of large brewing public limited companies and cooperatives. Many craft breweries from this time are nevertheless still in existence today. The large difference in size and hence better financi- al resources means there is a far greater opportu- nity for introducing new technology in larger breweries.
Small craft breweries could not afford the ex- pensive equipment and retained their traditional equipment and processes - many even until now.
Wooden vats were replaced by open fermenters and the wooden barrels, stacked in many layers, were replaced by tanks. For various reasons, however, this process did not occur in many breweries until the final decade of the last millennium, In addition to iron, aluminium later became impor- tant in breweries, especially for fermenters and lagering vessels.
The main changes were, howe- ver, in the material and the heating of the bre wing equipment. Here the cast iron open pots, which were commonplace at the beginning of the 19th century, were replaced by copper as the material from which vessels were made.
The shiny beaten vessels with their beautiful copper covers and steam vents, initially heated using 25 Fig, 0. However, since the existence of stainless steel alloys and the tools to work with this difficult material, their triumphal advance can no longer be stopped. The wooden transpor- tation barrel, which had survived for centuries has now been replaced by stainless steel kegs.
Since the introduction of stainless steel, an ever increasing number of automated cleaning systems are being used by breweries. As a result of this and also the increasing mechanisation and automation of the production process hard manual labour has been considerably redu ced, This trend also applies to the brewi equipment Fig. For this purpose almost every brewery had its own small malt house in which the malt that was used for brewing in carly summer was produced in the winter. Of course at this time and until the middle of the 20th century, malt production was still very labour intensive and characterised by heavy manual work in the huge floor maltings.
Turning in the kiln was also sometimes performed manu- ally. The path to the moder pneumatic malting systems brought with it enormous savings in energy and workforce requirements. Nowadays the computer rules in the maltings which are lar- gely free of people.
Today malting mainly takes place in large companies, the majority of which are made up of small companies which have merged. But also other companies, like the American Lasaffre- ADM or Rahr Malting , the English Greencore group or the Friedrich Weissheimer Malzfabrik have an annual production of over , tons of malt, All companies nowadays have subsidiaries in other countries to enable them to produce more econo- mically on the spot Fig.
Together these large companies produce around 7m tons of malt and thereby provide almost half of the estimated There have also been, however, revolutionary changes in other areas of brewing in the last years, The greatest changes after the introduction of refrigeration resulted from the invention of beer filtration by Lorenz Enzinger Since then it has been possible, first by means of a fil- ter mass, later by use of kieselguhr and other media, to filter beer so that it is quite clear.
By use of suitable stabilising measures it is possible to make beer stable for a very long time and the- refore to produce it independently of when it will be consumed. As a result of the development of beer bottles and cans and due to the massive 7 Interesses relacionados.
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