The languages of size have no place for private sentiment, either of the individual or of the nation. They are international languages like the binomial nomenclature of natural history. In dealing with the immense complexity of his social life man has not yet begun to apply inventiveness to the rational planning of ordinary language when describing different kinds of institutions and human behavior. The language of everyday life is clogged with sentiment, and the science of human nature has not advanced so far that we can describe individual sentiment in a clear way. So constructive thought about human society is hampered by the same conservatism as embarrassed the earlier naturalists. Nowadays people do not differ about what sort of animal is meant by Cimex or Pediculus, because these words are used only by people who use them in one way.
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Early life[ edit ] Hogben was born and raised in Southsea near Portsmouth in Hampshire. His parents were Plymouth Brethren ; he broke young from the family religion. He attended Tottenham County School in London, his family having moved to Stoke Newington , where his mother had grown up, in , and then as a medical student studied physiology at Trinity College, Cambridge.
He then returned to Cambridge, and was imprisoned in Wormwood Scrubs as a conscientious objector in His health collapsed and he was released in Hogben married in the mathematician, statistician, and feminist Enid Charles , with whom he had two sons and two daughters. In he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He worked in endocrinology , studying chameleon properties of the Xenopus frog.
After removing the pituitary gland, the frogs became white regardless of their environment. He noticed that female Xenopus frogs ovulated within hours of being injected with the extract.
In this way, Hogben serendipitously discovered a human pregnancy test. He knew that the ox extract chemically resembled human chorionic gonadotropin HCG , a hormone released by pregnant women. He confirmed that female Xenopus frogs, when injected with urine from a pregnant woman, ovulated within hours. In Hogben moved to the London School of Economics , in a chair for social biology. There he continued to develop the Hogben Pregnancy Test.
Previous pregnancy tests required several days to carry out and resulted in the deaths of mice or rabbits. It became the major, international pregnancy test for about fifteen years, from the mids through the s.
He has published a series of important papers on the effect of hormones on the pigmentary effector system and on the reproductive cycle of vertebrates , and has worked on many branches of comparative physiology. More recently he has made substantial contributions to genetics , especially with regard to man.
The social biology position at the London School of Economics was funded by the Rockefeller Foundation , and when it withdrew funding Hogben moved to Aberdeen , becoming Regius Professor of Natural History at the University of Aberdeen in Hogben was awarded the Neill Prize, and a gold medal, for his work in mathematical genetics.
The pregnancy test itself was discovered by Shapiro and his co-researcher, Harry Zwarenstein, and their results and report had been widely published in medical journals and text books   in South Africa  and the United Kingdom; in their report published by Royal Society of South Africa in October , Shapiro and Zwarenstein announced that in the previous month they had successfully used Xenopus in 35 pregnancy tests.
The following spring Nature carried their report. Nobel laureate John B. Fisher , the leading scientist-eugenicist of the day Tabery In an interview for the book Twentieth Century Authors, Hogben stated: "I like Scandinavians, skiing, swimming and socialists who realize it is our business to promote social progress by peaceful methods.
I dislike football, economists, eugenicists, Fascists, Stalinists , and Scottish conservatives. I think that sex is necessary and bankers are not".
According to Gary Werskey, Hogben was the only one of the founders not holding any eugenic ideas. Wells , Hogben began to work on books designed to popularize mathematics and science for the general public. Hogben produced two best-selling works of popular science, Mathematics for the Million and Science for the Citizen Mathematics for the Million received widespread praise, with H.
Wells saying that "Mathematics for the Million is a great book, a book of first-class importance". Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables He was Mason Professor of Zoology at the University of Birmingham — and professor of medical statistics there —, when he retired.
In , he became the first Vice-Chancellor of the University of Guyana , a post he abandoned in April , resigning in In the s Hogben settled at Glyn Ceiriog in north Wales, where he bought a cottage.
That decade his marriage to Enid broke down; the couple separated in and divorced in Widowed by the death of Jane in , he died at the War Memorial Hospital at Wrexham  in aged 79 and was cremated at nearby Pentre Bychan.
The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis , which Hogben first developed as a model organism, is now one of the most widely used model organisms in biological research. Likewise, his emphasis on the interdependence of nature and nurture has affected and continues to affect scientific practice and scientific debate. In terms of scientific debate, the dispute between Hogben and R. Fisher over gene-environment interaction was the first of many subsequent disputes over the extent to which the primacy of the gene can be understood independently of its developmental relationship with the environment.
Archive highlights include a draft of his autobiography later edited and published by his son Adrian Hogben and his wife , correspondence, hand drawn diagrams for his books, and reflections on his life and works. For a review of the Hogben Archive, see Tabery Winton The Pigmentary Effector System.
Hogben Mathematics For The Million
Early life[ edit ] Hogben was born and raised in Southsea near Portsmouth in Hampshire. His parents were Plymouth Brethren ; he broke young from the family religion. He attended Tottenham County School in London, his family having moved to Stoke Newington , where his mother had grown up, in , and then as a medical student studied physiology at Trinity College, Cambridge. He then returned to Cambridge, and was imprisoned in Wormwood Scrubs as a conscientious objector in His health collapsed and he was released in
Mathematics for the Million: How to Master the Magic of Numbers
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