Другая их система, Star Frontiers , была создана для игр в жанре космической научной фантастики. Каждая из этих игр имела собственный самодостаточный набор правил, которые значительно отличались в разных системах. GURPS позволила играть в любом жанре без необходимости использования отдельного набора правил для каждой игры. Первая редакция GURPS увидела свет в году и являла собой две книги правил: Book 1: Characters в основном предназначенная для игроков и Book 2: Adventuring предназначенная для мастера. Вторая редакция появилась уже в году , также в двух томах и имела небольшие отличия от предыдущей. Наиболее долго существующая третья редакция появилась в году уже в одном страничном томе GURPS Basic Set, в котором были представлены все правила игры.
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Another game from the same company, Star Frontiers , was developed for science fiction —based role-playing. Each of these games was set with its own self-contained rules system , and the rules for playing each game differed greatly from one game to the next. Attempts were made in Advanced Dungeons and Dragons to allow cross-genre games using Gamma World and Boot Hill rules; however, characters could only be used in a new genre by converting their statistics.
Although GURPS was preceded by Basic Role-Playing Chaosium , and the Hero System Hero Games , a system that expanded to multiple genres starting in ,  GURPS was the most commercially successful[ citation needed ] generic role-playing game system to allow players to role-play in any environment they please while still using the same set of core rules.
This flexibility of environment is greatly aided by the use of technology levels or "tech-levels" that allow a campaign to be set from the Stone Age TL-0 to the Digital Age TL-8 or beyond. In , Steve Jackson designed a new character generation system for the microgames Melee and Wizard that used a point-buy system: players are given a fixed number of points with which to buy abilities.
GURPS also benefits from the many dozens of worldbooks describing settings or additional rules in all genres including science fiction, fantasy, and historical.
Carella ,  Robin Laws ,  S. A common misconception holds that this raid was part of Operation Sundevil and carried out by the FBI. Operation: Sundevil was in action at the same time, but it was completely separate. United States Secret Service. It promised to simplify and streamline most areas of play and character creation. The changes include modification of the attribute point adjustments, an edited and rationalized skill list, clarification of the differences between abilities from experience and from inborn talent, more detailed language rules, and revised technology levels.
For a beginning character in an average power game, the 4th edition suggests — points to modify attribute stats, select advantages and disadvantages, and purchase levels in skills.
Normal NPCs are built on 25—50 points. Full-fledged heroes usually have — points, while superheroes are commonly built with — points. Normally they begin at 10, representing typical human ability, but can go as low as 1 for nearly useless, to 20 or higher for superhuman power. Anything in the 8 to 12 range is considered to be in the normal or average area for humans. Basic attribute scores of 6 or less are considered crippling—they are so far below the human norm that they are only used for severely handicapped characters.
Scores of 15 or more are described as amazing—they are immediately apparent and draw constant comment. Players assign these ratings spending character points. The higher the rating the more points it will cost the player, however, assigning a score below the average 10 gives the player points back to assign elsewhere.
Since almost all skills are based on Dexterity or Intelligence, those attributes are twice as expensive or yield twice the points, if purchased below In earlier editions pre—4th Edition all attributes followed the same cost-progression, where higher attributes cost more per increase than attributes close to the average of Attribute scores also determine several secondary characteristics.
The four major ones are each directly based on a single attribute: Hit Points HP : how much damage and injury can be sustained, based on ST in 4e. In previous editions it was based on HT. Will Will : mental focus and strength, withstanding stress, based on IQ. Perception Per : general sensory alertness, based on IQ. In previous editions it was based on ST. The other secondary characteristics Damage, Basic Lift, Basic Speed, Dodge, Move are calculated from one or more attribute values using individual tables or formulae.
Character advantages and disadvantages[ edit ] GURPS has a profusion of advantages and disadvantages which enable players or Game Masters to customize their characters. The myriad options available and the rewards the system provides players for carefully creating their characters are attractive to gamers who enjoy a high degree of flexibility in character design. A player can select numerous Advantages and Disadvantages to differentiate the character; the system supports both mundane traits such as above-average or below-average Wealth, Status and Reputation as well as more exotic special abilities and weaknesses.
These are categorized as physical, mental or social, and as exotic, supernatural, or mundane. Advantages benefit the character and cost points to purchase. Selecting Disadvantages returns character points and allows players to limit their characters in one way in exchange for being more powerful or gifted in other areas. Disadvantages include such positive attributes as honesty and truthfulness which limit the way a character is played.
There are also many Perks and Quirks to choose from which give a character some personality. Perks minor Advantages and Quirks minor Disadvantages benefit or hinder the character a bit, but they mostly add role-playing flavor. Enhancements and limitations can tailor an advantage or disadvantage to suit creative players.
These modify the effects and point cost of advantages and disadvantages. This addition to the system greatly increases its flexibility while decreasing the number of specific advantages and disadvantages that must be listed.
For instance, in a generic medieval fantasy setting, skills for operating a computer , or flying a fighter jet would not normally be available. Skills are rated by level, and the more levels purchased with character points, the better the characters are at that particular skill relative to their base attribute. Easy skills cost few points to purchase levels in, and the cost per skill level increases with each level of difficulty.
Game mechanics allow that eventually it may be less expensive to raise the level of the base attribute the skills depend on as opposed to purchasing higher levels of skills. A player can generally purchase a skill for his character at any level he or she can afford. The lower you choose the fewer points it costs to buy the skill, and the higher you go, the more points it costs.
Some skills have default levels, which indicate the level rating a character has when using that skill untrained i. For example, a character with a Dexterity of 12, is using the Climbing skill untrained. Climbing has a default of DX-5 or ST-5, which means that using the skill untrained gives him a Climbing skill level of 7 if he tied it to the Dexterity stat. If the character had a higher Strength stat, he could have a better chance of success if he tied the Climbing skill there instead.
Some skills also have a Tech Level TL rating attached to them, to differentiate between Skills that concern similar concepts, but whose tasks are accomplished in different ways when used with differing levels of technology. This helps during time traveling scenarios, or when characters are forced to deal with particularly outdated or advanced equipment. An "average roll" of three six sided dice generates a total of If the roll is less than or equal to that number, the check succeeds.
There is no "target number" or "difficulty rating" set by the Game Master, as would be the case in many other RPG systems. Instead the GM will apply various modifiers to add or subtract to the skill level. In this way, positive modifiers increase the chance for success by adding to the stat or skill level you must roll under while negative modifiers deduct from it, making things more difficult. For example: a player makes a pick pocketing test for her character. The character has a Pickpocket skill with a level of Under normal circumstances - i.
If the player rolls above 11, then the character has failed the attempt at pick pocketing. There are some exceptions for very high or low rolls, deemed criticals. No matter the level of the skill, a die roll of 18 is always a critical failure, and a roll of 3 or 4 is always a critical success a roll of 17 is a critical failure as well, unless the character relevant skill level is 16 or more.
After all characters have taken their action, one second has elapsed. Free actions are simple actions that can be done at any time. Characters in a party have a set initiative that is entirely based upon their Basic Speed characteristic.
Attacks made by a character are checked against their skill with the particular weapon they carry. For instance, if a character is using a pistol, as with any other skill, it is beneficial to have a high level in the Guns skill. Like any other skill check, a player must roll equal to or less than the level of the skill to succeed. Failure means a miss, success scores a hit. Similarly, critical hits mean that the blow might inflict significantly more damage to its target; critical misses may lead to a rather unpleasant and unexpected event such as dropping the weapon or hitting the wrong target.
Attack modifiers are set by the GM when factoring in things like distance, speed and cover that make a successful strike more difficult. After a successful attack, except in the case of a critical hit, the defender usually gets a chance to avoid the blow. Unlike many RPG systems, an Active Defense is an unopposed check, meaning that in most cases, the success of an attack has no effect on the difficulty of the defense. A common criticism is that characters can achieve a relatively high Active Defense value, drawing out fights considerably.
The only mechanic within the system to address this is the Feint action, which if successful will place the adversary in an unfavorable position, reducing their active defense against that character only, on the subsequent turn. Certain skills, attributes and equipment, when strung together, can be used to great effect. Let us say a gunslinger from the Old West is facing a foe; he can use the Combat Reflexes ability to react before his enemy, the Fast-Draw Pistol skill to get his two guns out, the Gunslinger ability to allow him to skip the aiming step, and the Dual-Weapon Attack Pistol skill to fire both his guns at once.
This would have taken around 6 turns, if he had none of these skills. Damage and defenses[ edit ] Damage from muscle-powered weapons, clubs, swords, bows, etc. The weaker a character is physically, the less damage he or she is capable of inflicting with such a weapon. Purely mechanical weapons guns, beam sabers, bombs, etc. Like most other RPGs, a loss of hit points indicates physical harm being inflicted upon a character, which can potentially lead to death. GURPS calculates shock penalties when someone is hit, representing the impact it causes and the rush of pain that interferes with concentration.
While a very high amount of total HP loss will cause certain death, there are also several points at which a player must successfully roll HT, with different grades of failure indicating character death or a mortal injury. Depending on the nature of the attack, there will sometimes be additional effects. Advancement[ edit ] Character advancement follows the same system as character creation. Characters are awarded character points to improve themselves at regular intervals usually at the end of a game session or story.
GMs are free to distribute experience as they see fit. This contrasts with some traditional RPGs where players receive a predictable amount of experience for defeating foes. The book recommends providing points for completing objectives and points for good role-playing per game session. Advancement can also come through study, work, or other activities, either during game play or between sessions.
In general, hours of study equals one character point which can be applied for the area being studied. Self-study and on the job experience take more time per character point while high tech teaching aids can reduce the time required.
Some intensive situations let a character advance quickly, as most waking hours are considered study. For instance, characters travelling through the Amazon may count every waking moment as study of jungle survival, while living in a foreign country could count as eight hours per day of language study or more.
Править До GURPS ролевые игры х и начала х разрабатывались специально для какой-либо игровой среды и были по большей части не совместимы друг с другом. Другая их система, Star Frontiers, была создана для игр в жанре космической научной фантастики. Каждая из этих игр имела собственный самодостаточный набор правил, которые значительно отличались в разных системах. GURPS была первой коммерчески успешной попыткой создать всеобъемлющую универсальную игровую систему, которая позволила бы играть в любом жанре без необходимости использования отдельного набора правил для каждой игры. В GURPS же каждый игрок распределял определенное количество очков между различными характеристиками своего персонажа. Вместе с Hero System GURPS была одной из первых систем ролевых игр, в которых персонажи создавались распределением очков между характеристиками, умениями и преимуществами , а за уменьшение характеристик и недостатки давались дополнительные очки. Упор создателей GURPS именно на универсальный её аспект оказался успешным маркетинговым ходом: сегодня это одна из самых популярных систем ролевых игр.
GURPS Lite (Fourth Edition)