GILDAS BOURDAIS PDF

It is summarized with the approval of the authors. To translate and publish the report itself, in part or in its integrality, permission should be asked by writing to the administrator of the association COMETA, Mr. What must we be prepared for? A quoi doit-on se preparer? A non-exhaustive list of members is given at the beginning, and it is impressive enough. General Norlain tells in a short preface how this committee was created.

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Figures Abstract Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases CRKs are transmembrane proteins characterized by the presence of two domains of unknown function 26 DUF26 in their ectodomain. The CRKs form one of the largest groups of receptor-like protein kinases in plants, but their biological functions have so far remained largely uncharacterized.

We conducted a large-scale phenotyping approach of a nearly complete crk T-DNA insertion line collection showing that CRKs control important aspects of plant development and stress adaptation in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli in a non-redundant fashion.

CRKs play general and fine-tuning roles in the regulation of stomatal closure induced by microbial and abiotic cues. Despite their great number and high similarity, large-scale phenotyping identified specific functions in diverse processes for many CRKs and indicated that CRK2 and CRK5 play predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively.

Individual CRKs control distinct responses in an antagonistic fashion suggesting future potential for using CRKs in genetic approaches to improve plant performance and stress tolerance. One of the largest subgroups of RLKs, the cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases CRKs , has been suggested to be involved in mediating the effects of reactive oxygen species ROS.

While ROS are recognized as important signalling elements with a large variety of roles in plants, their ligands and achievement of signalling specificity remain unknown. Using insertion mutants we analysed the roles of CRKs in plant development and stress responses and show that CRKs have important roles as mediators of signalling specificity during regulation of stomatal aperture. Our study shows that, despite their large number and high sequence conservation, individual CRKs have intriguingly distinct functions in different aspects of plant life.

This makes the CRKs promising candidates for future studies of their biochemical function. PLoS Genet 11 7 : e This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Introduction Receptor protein kinases play key roles in mediating perception of extracellular signals. These signals trigger intracellular signalling cascades allowing cells to respond and adapt to internal and external stimuli. Receptor kinases contain an extracellular signal-sensing domain connected by a single transmembrane domain to an intracellular protein kinase domain [ 1 ]. In contrast to mammals, all sequenced plant genomes contain a large number of RLKs, as illustrated by Arabidopsis and rice which encode more than and RLKs in their genomes [ 1 ], respectively.

The highly diverse extracellular regions of RLKs typically contain one or more protein domains or combinations of different domains. These domains have been used to divide RLKs into different sub-groups [ 1 ]. To date only a few RLKs have been functionally characterised but expression analyses have linked a large number of RLKs to many different physiological processes and signalling networks in plant development, pathogen defence, and abiotic stress response [ 5 — 8 ].

Experimental evidence suggests that PDLPs are involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell communication and are important for pathogen defence [ 11 , 12 ]. Furthermore, more than 50 secreted proteins in Arabidopsis contain DUF26 domains but their roles have so far not been elucidated. Several CRKs show elevated transcript levels in response to salicylic acid SA and pathogens [ 13 — 17 ] as well as ozone O3 and drought [ 7 , 18 ].

Altered transcript abundance due to conditions affecting cellular redox and reactive oxygen species ROS balance [ 7 , 19 ], and the presence and spacing of the conserved cysteines in the DUF26 domain suggest that CRKs might be connected to ROS and redox signalling [ 7 , 14 , 20 ]. However, the functional role of the DUF26 domain is still unclear.

Previous studies have suggested the involvement of some CRK family members in pathogen defence and osmotic stress. Also a loss-of-function mutant crk20 showed a slight reduction in Pto DC growth [ 23 ].

Knock-down of CRK36 resulted in increased sensitivity to abscisic acid ABA and osmotic stress [ 25 ], and altered seed germination 6 asg6; crk2 , a mutant deficient in CRK2 function, has been associated with changes in seed germination in response to ABA [ 26 ]. A mutation in crk7 led to slightly increased sensitivity to extracellular ROS [ 27 ], and a mutation in crk5 resulted in impaired stomatal conductance, accelerated senescence as well as enhanced cell death in response to ultraviolet radiation [ 28 ].

Given the large number of CRKs and several transcript profiling experiments which suggest that CRKs are involved in a variety of environmental responses [ 6 — 8 , 18 , 19 ], it is surprising how little is known about the physiological and biochemical functions of this RLK family. However, based on transcriptional analysis CRKs might have far more complex functions, for example also in signalling in response to N-acetylglucosamine GlcNAc oligomers in the plant cell wall [ 29 ].

This phenomics approach revealed novel roles for CRKs in control of plant development and biotic and abiotic stress adaptation. In spite of high amino acid sequence similarity, we observed that many CRKs mediate specific functions, with CRK2 and CRK5 playing predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively. Our results imply a model for CRK function, placing CRKs as putative elements between ROS production and downstream signalling leading to pathogen- and abiotic stress-induced stomatal closure.

This provides a framework for future detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRK signalling. However, only limited information is available on their physiological roles. Similar groups can be identified in phylogenetic trees based on the intracellular kinase domain S1A Fig as well as on the extracellular region S1B Fig.

This suggests co-evolution of the extra- and intracellular domains of Arabidopsis CRKs. The position of CRK45, At4g, which lacks the extracellular and transmembrane region, is ambiguous as it clusters with low bootstrap support with the basal group in the phylogenetic tree based on the entire coding region Fig 1A but as a sister to groups II and III in the tree based on the kinase domain S1A Fig.

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Figures Abstract Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases CRKs are transmembrane proteins characterized by the presence of two domains of unknown function 26 DUF26 in their ectodomain. The CRKs form one of the largest groups of receptor-like protein kinases in plants, but their biological functions have so far remained largely uncharacterized. We conducted a large-scale phenotyping approach of a nearly complete crk T-DNA insertion line collection showing that CRKs control important aspects of plant development and stress adaptation in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli in a non-redundant fashion. CRKs play general and fine-tuning roles in the regulation of stomatal closure induced by microbial and abiotic cues. Despite their great number and high similarity, large-scale phenotyping identified specific functions in diverse processes for many CRKs and indicated that CRK2 and CRK5 play predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively.

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We next addressed whether ligand-induced endocytosis of PRRs in N. Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Phosphorylation-dependent differential regulation of plant growth, cell death, and innate immunity by the regulatory receptor-like kinase BAK1. We thank members gildxs the S. Direct ubiquitination of pattern recognition receptor FLS2 attenuates plant innate immunity. Gildas Bourdais Only, a big quantity of letters joined and analysed together can be understandable. Bpurdais marked it as to-read Aug 02, Arrows point to colocalized signals at endosomes.

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