Santos et al. Type-species: Formica attelaboides, by monotypy. Dolichoderus senior synonym of Diabolus junior homonym , Karawajewella, Monoceratoclinea: Shattuck, c: Type-species: Dolichoderus doriae, by original designation. Acanthoclinea raised to genus: Brown, e:
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Distribution based on AntWeb specimens Check data from AntWeb Biology Dill : all references prior to referring to Dolichoderus bituberculaltus auct.
Emery [Java: in Dischidia rafflesiana Wallich, parabiosis with Crematogaster sp. Lycaenidae ]; Jacobson [Java: variable nesting behaviour, often between joint leaves; trophobiosis with aphids, coccids, membracids; prey Ptilocerus ochraceus Montandon Reduviidae ]; Emery 13, pl. Planococcus lilacinus Cockerell Pseudococcus crotonis auctt. Steatococcus Ferr. The following papers deal with the usage of D. Pseudococcidae: Cataenococcus hispidus Morrison , Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green , Planococcus lilacinus Cockerell , Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius, now known to be P.
Nesting Habits Fruiting bodies of Mycodomus formicartus. A-B : Black and gray fugal bodies found on bamboo with superficial pores, C : Degraded fruiting body revealing internal cavity, D : Surface of fruiting body, E : Fruiting body dissected in half, F : A perithecium with periphyses, G : A row of perithecia submerged underneath the fruiting-body surface, H : Black ants, Dolichoderus thoracicus associated with fungal bodies, I : Part-ascospores, J : Asci containing ascospores, K: Young ascospore.
The fruiting body of the fungus forms a cavity structure containing debris. They found these cavities function as nest sites for the ants. Even in mature fungal samples, which are naturally degraded with exposed carton-like structure, ants were still observed nearby. The ants utilize the fungal fruiting body as nests, the hard and tough structure of the fungus protecting the ants from an otherwise harsh environment.
Tapinoma thoracica Smith, F. Combination in Dolichoderus: Dalla Torre, ; in D. Hypoclinea : Emery, a: Senior synonym of bituberculatus and its junior synonym sellaris : Donisthorpe, c: ; Shattuck, Current subspecies: nominal plus bilikanus, borneonensis, lacciperdus, levior, nasutus, rufescens unresolved junior homonym.
See also: Shattuck, Hypoclinea bituberculata Mayr, w. Emery, a: q. Combination in Dolichoderus: Emery, a: ; in D. Hypoclinea : Emery, c: Senior synonym of sellaris: Mayr, a: 76; of emarginata: Xu, a: Junior synonym of thoracicus: Donisthorpe, c: ; Shattuck, See also: Bingham, Dolichoderus Hypoclinea bituberculatus var. Junior synonym of bituberculatus: Xu, a: Hypoclinea sellaris Roger, a: w.
Junior synonym of bituberculatus: Mayr, a: Taxonomic Notes Dill - D. As already stated by Donisthorpe , D. Despite this early synonymization, this species had usually been identified and described as D.
While a clear delimination of these forms based upon morphological characters is very difficult, there are in some cases very obvious biological or ethological differences. For example, the rather rare Dolichoderus sp. For instance, some have rather loose nests with or without fragile carton, while the nests of others are very stabile, multi-chambered out of firm carton material.
Again, certain groups build stable-nest pavilions on leaves out of carton or silk see review of literature on biology above. While, on the one hand, the thoracicus complex seems to consist of various, still unidentified sibling species, there are, on the other hand, several existing taxa that most probably should be lumped.
The majority of the many described subspecies is based only on very variable characters, stich as colour or very slight differences in the sculpturing or shape of the propodeum, which may not stand the test of a critical review. Furthermore, a synonymy with thoracicus has been already assumed for Dolichoderus gibbus by Emery , and for Dolichoderus lactarius by Donisthorpe A thorough taxonomic review of this complex appears to be urgently indicated, not at least because of the frequent occurrence, wide distribution and considerable economic importance e.
Type Material The following notes on F. References Cuc, N. Beneficial effects of black ants Dolichoderus thoracicus Smith in sapodilla production in Vietnam.
Biological control in the tropics: towards efficient biodiversity and bioresource management for effective biological control. Chapter pagination: Dalla Torre, K. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Formicidae Heterogyna. Leipzig: W. Engelmann, pp. Taxonomy of the migrating herdsman species of the genus Dolichoderus Lund, , with remarks on the systematics of other Southeast-Asian Dolichoderus.
Herdsmen ants and their mealybug partners. Donisthorpe, H. Genera Insectorum page 14, Combination in D. Hypoclinea Jitjak, W. A novel fungus, Mycodomus formicartus associated with black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus Smith on bamboo. Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology doi: Shattuck, S. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae Hymenoptera: Formicidae.
Descriptions of new species of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. Wallace at Celebes.
This ant has been used as biological control agent to drive away mirid bug Family: Miridae from cocao tree Theobroma cacao. Hence, one of its common name is Cocoa Black Ant. In Singapore, this ant is common in nature parks and usually appears in large contingent protecting certain bugs including their nymphs or in long marching column. When I started to pay more attention to ants in late , this ant caught my immediate attention because of its abundance in a nearby park which had preserved some wild areas from an old rubber tree plantation. Over the years when I frequent this park, I observed that this ant had gradually taken over the territories previously occupied by the weaver ants and the yellow crazy ants.
Dolichoderus thoracicus (Smith, 1860)
They seem to prefer cultivated areas and they are rarely found in natural undisturbed forest, probably due to the competition for food resources by other species. They are mostly arboreal and create nests in any suitable dark dry place such as between large overlapping leaves, under bark or in hollow bamboos. Their nests are reinforced with chewed up plant debris forming a carton like layer which helps bind the leaves together. In the tropics they usually rest during the heat of the day when there is bright sunlight but as soon as it cools down will pour out of their nests and create long foraging trails both over tree branches and the ground. The workers are mm in size and queens slightly larger at 4 mm. Once established colonies will accept multiple queens back into the mother colony forming vast mega colonies, which can spread over a km. It is estimated in these large colonies there is one queen to every workers.
DOLICHODERUS THORACICUS PDF
Zologis Dolichoderus thoracicus is a brown to blackish brown species most easily recognized by the deep and broad concavity on the mesosomal dorsum separating the propodeum from the mesonotum, the strongly convex propodeum which forms a blunt posteriorly projecting protrusion, and the strongly concave propodeal declivity. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Formicidae in relation to their success dolicyoderus biological control agents on cocoa. This article is doljchoderus available for rental through DeepDyve. This page was last edited on 12 Novemberat Dalla Torre, PDF: Though the ants appeared to be about the same size in most of the colonies seen, I did see larger ones occasionally.
Genus : Dolichoderus Spesies : Dolichoderus thoracicus Smith Semut hitam Dolichoderus thoracicus hidup dalam organisasi sosial yang terdiri dari sejumlah individu dan membentuk suatu masyarakat yang disebut koloni. Koloni semut terdiri dari kelompok-kelompok yang disebut kasta. Semut hitam terdiri dari beberapa kasta, yaitu: ratu, pejantan, dan pekerja. Semut pekerja dibagi dua, yaitu pekerja dan prajurit. Kasta-kasta semut mempunyai tugas yang berbeda-beda, akan tetapi tetap saling berinteraksi dan bekerja sama demi kelangsungan hidupnya Putra, Semut Ratu Semut ratu memiliki tubuh yang lebih besar daripada anggota koloni yang lain, panjangnya sekitar 4,9 milimeter, komponen-komponen mata berkembang dengan sempurna, dan memiliki mekanisme terbang berupa sayap yang telah berkembang dengan baik sejak memasuki fase imago. Dalam satu koloni biasanya terdapat lebih dari seekor ratu.