Mikakinos Framework for understanding poverty. Abnormal and cognitive psychologists have found a strong correlation between depression-like symptoms and learned helplessness in laboratory animals. American psychologist Martin Seligman initiated research on learned helplessness in at the University of Pennsylvania as an extension of his interest in depression. Symptomatology, patient characteristics, and outcome. Other key brain regions that are involved with the expression of helpless behavior include the basolateral amygdalacentral nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Hopelessness theory of depression: Foundation for the Advancement of Psychology.
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Ele desiste antes mesmo de tentar. O sujeito acredita ter nascido com uma capacidade intelectual fixa e que vai morrer com ela. Reversibility consists in making individuals cognizant of the dependence between effort and outcomes DeVilles et al.
Bandura states that learned helplessness can be decreased through enhanced self-efficacy. The positive expectations of future efficacy enhance resilience leading to higher motivation.
John Teasdale contributes that real present experiences of success are more powerful than recalled experiences in the alleviation of helplessness. Carol Dweck adds that the alleviation of learned helplessness is more effective if the success experiences are paired with reflections on the process that leads to successful outcomes.
Individuals must be cognizant that outcomes are consequences of their choices and attitudes during the process - success or failure do not simply happen. The cognitive mechanism the attributions made for uncontrollability is what really causes helplessness. Therefore, exposure to success, without the cognitive processing of causal attributions, cannot be enough for the desensitization of the helpless deficits either.
Attribution retraining programs and success-based treatment are frequent types of interventions for the alleviation of learned helplessness Schoeberlein, Other viable ways to decrease helplessness are special skills training and desensitization of automatic thoughts Gillham, Reivich, Freres, Chaplin, Shatte, Samuels, Seligman, ; Seligman, Trainings usually include: social skills, self-determination, self-efficacy, decision-making, and problem-solving skills Schoeberlein, What is it?
The individual becomes incapable of realizing the the objective contingency between efforts and outcomes. The perception of independency between efforts and outcomes is called noncontingency. They fail to perceive the association between new stimulus and appropriate response. He stresses that this condition makes the acquisition of new skills impossible for helpless individuals.
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