Russel and P. What is artificial intelligence? The exciting new effort to make computers think machines with minds in the full and literal sense. Artificial intelligence systemizes and automates intellectual tasks and is therefore potentially relevant to any sphere of human intellectual activities.

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List the various informed search strategy. Whether uniform cost search is optimal? Define iterative deepening search. Define CSP A constraint satisfaction problem is a special kind of problem satisfies some additional structural properties beyond the basic requirements for problem in general. In a CSP; the states are defined by the values of a set of variables and the goal test specifies a set of constraint that the value must obey. Give the drawback of DFS. The drawback of DFS is that it can get stuck going down the wrong path.

Many problems have very deep or even infinite search tree. So dfs will never be able to recover from an unlucky choice at one of the nodes near the top of the tree. SoDFS should be avoided for search trees with large or infinite maximum depths. What is called as bidirectional search?

Explain depth limited search. Depth limited avoids the pitfalls of DFS by imposing a cut off of the maximum depth of a path. This cut-off can be implemented by special depth limited search algorithm or by using the general search algorithm with operators that keep track of the depth.

What is the advantage of memory bounded search techniques? It will utilize whatever memory is made available to it. It avoids repeated states as for as its memory allow. It is complete if the available memory is sufficient to store the shallowest path. It is optimal if enough memory is available to store the shallowest optimal solution path. Otherwise it returns the best solution that can be reached with the available memory.

When enough memory is available for entire search tree, the search is optimally efficient. Hill climbing. Simulated annealing. List some drawbacks of hill climbing process. Local maxima: A local maxima as opposed to a goal maximum is a peak that is lower that the highest peak in the state space. Once a local maxima is reached the algorithm will halt even though the solution may be far from satisfactory.

Plateaux: A plateaux is an area of the state space where the evaluation fn is essentially flat. The search will conduct a random walk. Define a knowledge Base: Knowledge base is the central component of knowledge base agent and it is described as a set of representations of facts about the world. Define a Sentence? Each individual representation of facts is called a sentence. The sentences are expressed in a language called as knowledge representation language.

Define an inference procedure An inference procedure reports whether or not a sentence?? If i can derive?? Alpha is derived from KB or i derives alpha from KB 4. What are the three levels in describing knowledge based agent? Logical level Knowledge level or epistemological level 5. Define Syntax? Syntax is the arrangement of words. Syntax of a knowledge describes the possible configurations that can constitute sentences.

Syntax of the language describes how to make sentences. Define Semantics The semantics of the language defines the truth of each sentence with respect to each possible world. With this semantics, when a particular configuration exists within an agent, the agent believes the corresponding sentence. Define Logic Logic is one which consist of i. A formal system for describing states of affairs, consisting of a Syntax b Semantics. Proof Theory — a set of rules for deducing the entailment of set sentences.

What is entailment The relation between sentence is called entailment. The formal definition of entailment is this:???? Informally the truth of? What is truth Preserving An inference algorithm that derives only entailed sentences is called sound or truth preserving. Define a Proof A sequence of application of inference rules is called a proof. Finding proof is exactly finding solution to search problems. If the successor function is defined to generate all possible applications of inference rules then the search algorithms can be applied to find proofs.

Define a Complete inference procedure An inference procedure is complete if it can derive all true conditions from a set of premises. Define Interpretation Interpretation specifies exactly which objects, relations and functions are referred to be the constant predicate, and function symbols.

Define Validity of a sentence A sentence is valid or necessarily true if and only if it is true under all possible interpretation in all possible world. Define Satisfy-ability of a sentence A sentence is satisfy-able if and only if there is some interpretation in some world for which it is true. Define true sentence A sentence is true under a particular interpretation if the state of affairs it represents is the case. What are the basic Components of propositional logic? Logical Constants True, False Define AND —Elimination rule in propositional logic AND elimination rule states that from a given conjunction it is possible to inference any of the conjuncts.

Define OR-Introduction rule in propositional logic OR-Introduction rule states that from, a sentence, we can infer its disjunction with anything. Why does uncertainty arise? State the reason why first order, logic fails to cope with that the mind like medical diagnosis.

Three reasons a. Laziness: o it is hard to lift complete set of antecedents of consequence, needed to ensure and exception less rule. Practical ignorance: even if we know all the rules, we may be uncertain about a particular item needed. Define the term utility? The term utility is used in the sense of "the quality of being useful.

What is the need for probability theory in uncertainty? Probability provides the way of summarizing the uncertainty that comes from our laziness and ignorance.

Probability statements do not have quite the same kind of semantics known as evidences. Utility theory says that every state has a degree of usefulness, or utility to in agent, and that the agent will prefer states with higher utility. The use utility theory to represent and reason with preferences.

What is called as principle of maximum expected utility? The basic idea is that an agent is rational if and only if it chooses the action that yields the highest expected utility, averaged over all the possible outcomes of the action. This is known as MEU. Define Prior Probability? It is important to remember that p a can only be used when there is no other information. This type of notations simplifies many equations. What is an atomic event? An atomic event is an assignment of particular values to all variables, in other words, the complete specifications of the state of domain.


Artificial Intelligence CS2351 - Two mark Question Bank

Define Artificial Intelligence AI. The study of how to make computers do things at which at the moment, people are better. Systems that think like humans Systems that act like humans Systems that think rationally Systems that act rationally 1 B. Define Artificial Intelligence formulated by Haugeland.


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