CECORA 1620 PDF

Edit Because of the failure of Commonwealth diplomatic mission to Constantinople, and violations of the Treaty of Busza by both sides as Cossacks and Tatars continued their raids across the borders , relations between the Ottomans and the Commonwealth rapidly deteriorated in early Both sides began preparing for war, as neither was quite ready for it at the time. The Ottomans planned for a war in , while the Commonwealth Sejm denied most funds the hetmans had asked for. The army entered Moldavia in September.

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Both sides began preparing for war, as neither was quite ready for it at the time. The Ottomans declared war against Poland in and planned to attack in the spring of The army entered Moldavia in September. The Moldavian ruler, hospodar Gaspar Graziani , nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, decided to rebel and support the Commonwealth against the Ottomans. During the first day of fighting the 18th , most of the rebel Moldavians decided to switch sides and quickly attacked the Polish-Lithuanian flank.

Mercenaries, private troops and their magnate leaders were lacking in discipline and morale. On 29 September Commonwealth troops had broken through Ottoman ranks with tabor wagon trains and started their retreat.

However, after Graziani bribed some magnates, units of private troops begun to flee and some mercenary cavalry panicked and also ran.

This was a prelude of things to come. Consecutive attacks during the retreat including a particularly violent one on 3 October were repelled, but troop units started disintegrating as soon as soldiers caught sight of the Dniester and the Polish-Lithuanian border. During another heavy assault on 6 October, most of the magnates and nobles broke and fled north, [3] leaving infantry and camp, thus sealing the fate of the whole expedition: most of the Polish-Lithuanian troops were killed or captured.

Before his death he received the blessing of his confessor, Father Szymon Wybierski Wybierek, Wyberek of the Society of Jesus, who stood by his side 7 October. Aftermath Only a thousand Commonwealth men survived the battles, while the Tatars moved into Podilia , Volhynia and Galicia. The Ottomans, following their victory in the Battle of Cecora, had high hopes of conquering Ukraine , at the time a part of Poland. Polish commander Jan Karol Chodkiewicz crossed the Dniester in September with approximately 35, Polish troops and Cossack supporters and entrenched himself at the Khotyn Fortress , blocking the path of the slow Ottoman march.

At Khotyn, for more than a month 2 September — 9 October , the Commonwealth hetman held the sultan at bay until the first autumn snow Battle of Khotyn. The lateness of the season and the loss of approximately 40, men in battle compelled Osman II to initiate negotiations.

A few days before the siege was to be lifted, the aged grand hetman died of exhaustion in the fortress 24 September The battle was a stalemate and the resulting Treaty of Khotyn reflected it, providing some concessions to the Commonwealth but meeting some Ottoman demands.

Osman II blamed the stalemate of war on the lack of zeal and the "degeneracy" of the Janissaries. His efforts at modernizing the Ottoman army were not well received by the Janissaries and the conservative "learned" class. A revolt led by Janissaries and the students of the madrases erupted on 18 May and Osman II was deposed; two days later he was killed by the rebels who deposed him.

I, ed. I,

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Battle of Cecora (1620)

La battaglia di Cecora chiuse una volta per tutte le intromissioni polacco-lituane nella gestione ottomana del Principato di Moldavia v. Закончилась поражением коронного войска. В году великий коронный гетман Жолкевский, рассчитывая на помощь молдавского князя Гаспера Грациани, двинулся против турок с бойцами. С турецкой стороны Искандер-паша привёл с собой 10 тыс. Вспомогательное войско Грациани оказалось небольшим всего всадников. После неудачного боя 20 сентября, польский военный совет, ввиду численного перевеса врагов, высказался за отступление.

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Bitwa pod Cecorą (1620)

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