A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Practice W is used as a screening test to avoid the necessity, foracceptable specimens, of more extensive testing required byPractices X, Y, and Z. See Table 1 for a listing of alloys forwhich Practice W is appropriate. This possibility must be considered in selecting thetest method. Combinations of alloys and test methods forwhich successful experience is available are shown in Table 1. Application of these standard tests to the other ferritic stainlesssteels will be by specific agreement between producer and user.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 1. Practice W is used as a screening test to avoid the necessity, for acceptable specimens, of more extensive testing required by Practices X, Y, and Z. See Table 1 for a listing of alloys for which Practice W is appropriate. This possibility must be considered in selecting the test method.
Combinations of alloys and test methods for which successful experience is available are shown in Table 1. Application of these standard tests to the other ferritic stainless steels will be by speci? The choices are listed in Table 1. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
For speci? Referenced Documents 2. Apparatus 3. Current edition approved March 1, Published March Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as A — 93 e1. All other microscopical examinations are of the corroded surface under binocular examination see Section C Preferred criterion, these criteria are the most sensitive for the particular combination of alloy and test.
D Weight loss measurements can be used to detect severely sensitized material, but they are not very sensitive for alloys noted with this superscript and may not detect slight or moderate sensitization. The ground-glass opening is somewhat over 38 mm 11?
The size of the cradles should be such that they can pass through the ground-glass joint of the Erlenmeyer? They should have three or four holes in them to increase circulation of the test solution around the specimen. NOTE 2—Other equivalent means of specimen support such as glass hooks or stirrups may also be used. Types , , , and are nonstabilized grades that are generally not used in the as-welded or sensitized condition in other than mildly corrosive environments.
In the annealed condition, they are not subject to intergranular corrosion. For any studies of IGA on Types , , , or , the indicated test methods are suggested. Supplementary requirements are noted as required. NOTE 1—No substitution for this equipment may be used. The cold? It has been reported that violent boiling resulting in acid spills can occur. It is important to ensure that the concentration of acid does not become more concentrated and that an adequate number of boiling chips which are resistant to attack by the test solution are present.
Overall length shall be about mm 13 in. If the sample is too thick, multiple specimens should be used. Grind the cross section on wet or dry 80 or grit abrasive paper followed by successively? Avoid excessive heat when dry-grinding. Do not use sand- or grit-blasting. All traces of oxide scale formed during heat treatment must be removed. To avoid scale entrapment, stamp specimens for identi? Scope 5. Specimens with unacceptable microstructures should be subjected to Practices X, Y, or Z to better determine their susceptibility to intergranular attack.
Etching Conditions 6. This may be accomplished with the apparatus prescribed in 3. Immersion of the specimen-holding clamp in the etching solution should be avoided. Etching Precautions 7. Gas evolved at the electrodes with entrained oxalic acid is poisonous and irritating.
Preparation of Test Specimens 4. Additional requirements are noted where necessary. As-welded specimens should be cut so that no more than 13 mm 1? Only such surface?
For very heavy sections, specimens should be prepared to represent the appropriate surface while maintaining reasonable specimen size for convenience in testing. Ordinarily, removal of more material than necessary will have little in? However, in the special case of surface carburization sometimes encountered, for instance, in tubing when carbonaceous lubricants are employed it may be possible by heavy grinding or machining to remove the carburized layer completely.
Such treatment of test specimens is not permissible, except in tests undertaken to demonstrate such surface effects. Rinsing Prior to Examination 8.
Examination 9. Scope This test detects susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with the precipitation of chromium carbides and nitrides in stabilized and unstabilized ferric stainless steels. It may also detect the presence of chi or sigma phase in these steels.
The test will not differentiate between intergranular attack resulting from carbides and that due to intermetallic phases. The ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid solution may also selectively attack titanium carbides and nitrides in stabilized steels. The alloys on which the test has been successfully applied are shown in Table 1. It may be applied to wrought products and weld metal. Apparatus Also needed are: Warning—Protect the eyes and use rubber gloves and apron for handling acid.
Place the test? Add the acid slowly to the water in the Erlenmeyer? NOTE 3—Loss of vapor results in concentration of the acid.
A trip balance may be used. A — 93 FIG. Preparation of Test Specimens Procedure If there is an appreciable change in the level, repeat the test with fresh solution and a reground specimen. Times for steels not listed in Table 1 are subject to agreement between the supplier and the purchaser. A — 93 The tests can be run without interruption for the time speci? However, if preliminary results are desired, the specimen can be removed at any time for weighing.
More ferric sulfate must be added if the total weight loss of all specimens exceeds 2 g. During the test, ferric sulfate is consumed at a rate of 10 g for each 1 g of dissolved stainless steel. However, several specimens may be tested simultaneously. The number is limited only by the number of glass cradles that can be?
Each sample must be in a separate cradle so that the samples do not touch. Evaluation See Sections 30 and This test detects susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with the precipitation of chromium carbides or nitrides in unstabilized and stabilized ferritic stainless steels. It may also be used to evaluate the resistance of high purity or stabilized grades to sensitization to intergranular attack caused by welding or heat treatments.
It may be applied to wrought products. For detecting susceptibility to environments known to cause intergranular attack due to these phases use Practice X. Also needed are: 7 An equivalent area of copper shot or chips may be used. The copper should be washed and degreased before use. Warning—Protect the eyes and face by face shield and use rubber gloves and apron when handling acid. Times for alloys not listed in Table 1 are subject to agreement between the supplier and the purchaser. The tests can be run without interruption.
This test detects susceptibility to intergranular attack associated with the precipitation of chromium carbides or nitrides in stabilized and unstabilized ferritic stainless steels. It may also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of stabilizing element additions Cb, Ti, etc.
It may be applied to all wrought products and weld metal. For detecting susceptibility in environments known to cause intergranular attack due to these phases, use Practice X.
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More A Different method of preparing steel test specimens are presented. Four practices, including Practice W, X, Y, and Z, are used for determining susceptibility to intergranular attack in ferritic stainless steel. The bend test evaluations for the steel test specimens are presented. This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.