His father was a Slovene from Trieste who came from a poor working-class background, but created considerable wealth by winemaking. His mother was an ethnic Friulian from the County of Gorizia and Gradisca. Gradnik attended the multilingual State Gymnasium in Gorizia. He lived in a student home run by the Catholic Church. After finishing high school, he went to study law in Vienna. After graduation in , he served as a district judge in the Istrian city of Pula , in Gorizia and in other smaller towns throughout the Austrian Littoral.
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His father was a Slovene from Trieste who came from a poor working-class background, but created considerable wealth by winemaking. His mother was an ethnic Friulian from the County of Gorizia and Gradisca. Gradnik attended the multilingual State Gymnasium in Gorizia. He lived in a student home run by the Catholic Church.
After finishing high school, he went to study law in Vienna. After graduation in , he served as a district judge in the Istrian city of Pula , in Gorizia and in other smaller towns throughout the Austrian Littoral. During this period, he was active in Slovene and Croat cultural and political associations. Between and , he frequented the intellectual circles of young Slovene national-liberals in Gorizia. In , he married Mira Potokar, with whom he had a son, Sergij.
In , after the Italian annexation of the Julian March , he emigrated to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia , where he continued his career as a judge. In the late s, he worked as an expert consultant at the Ministry of Justice in Belgrade. He was later appointed member of the High Court for the Security of the State, in which political trials were conducted.
From and he served as a member of the "Bank of the Seven" Stol sedmorice , the court of cassation which had jurisdiction on all former Austro-Hungarian parts of Yugoslavia. After the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April , he was expelled by the new Fascist authorities of the Independent State of Croatia. He moved back to Ljubljana.
Between and , he was internated in the Gonars concentration camp by the Italian Fascist occupation authorities. The concentration camp experience would strongly influence his later poetry. After the end of World War II , he returned to Ljubljana , where he spent the rest of his life as a pensioner.
After September , when the Slovenian Littoral was annexed to Yugoslavia , he regularly visited his native village, spending most of the summer season writing poetry. He studied several oriental languages, such as Sanskrit , Persian , Bengali and Mandarin. He died in Ljubljana. Work Gradnik was a prolific author. During his lifetime, between and , he published nine collections of poems and left a large number of unpublished works.
Like Murn, Gradnik incorporated impressionist visions of the countryside and peasant life into his poetry.
He later moved away from decadentism , rediscovering his Roman Catholic faith and turning to more mystical themes, maintaining a simple and plain language. He also wrote patriotic songs, in which he conveyed intimate sentiments of pain, hope and frustration for the tragedies in the contemporary Slovenian history. Gradnik was also very influenced by the visual arts, especially painting and sculpture.
Gradnik was also an important translator. In his lifetime, however, he was mostly disregarded by critics. With his traditional style and conservative worldview, he remained outside the contemporary literary mainstream. After the establishment of the Communist regime in Yugoslavia after , his position deteriorated. Nevertheless, his deep Christian religious sentiment and his magical realistic style were seen as reactionary by the Communists.
He did not suffer any persecution, but he was pushed away from public life. Between and , he published mostly translations and none of his new poetry was published.
There was no public commemoration upon his death and he was not included in the canon taught in schools. In Yugoslavia, no street or institution was named after him until Nevertheless, many of his poems gained much popularity in his home region and a local school in the Italian commune of San Floriano del Collio was named after him in the late s.
Gradnik was rediscovered in the late s, when he was elevated to a truly national poet for the first time. Since mid, an annual festival has been held in August in his home village of Medana, called Days of Poetry and Wine Dnevi poezije in vina , to which young international poets are invited.
This gtadnik to works already in the public domain on or before 29 Aprilwhen a new copyright act became valid, which is also before 1 Januarythe URAA date. People of Slovenia in Description Alojz Gradnik 6. He did not suffer any persecution, but he was pushed away from public life. Views Read Edit View history. Файл:Alojz Gradnik During his lifetime, between andhe published nine collections of poems and left a large number of unpublished works.
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