Euras[ianism] brings an ideological foundation for post-Soviet imperialism. While still a teenager, he joined a secretive group of Moscow intellectuals interested in mysticism, paganism, and fascism. As one of his contributions, Dugin completed a translation of a book by the Italian pagan-fascist philosopher Julius Evola. Dugin is reported to have been detained by the KGB for participating in this study group, and forbidden literature was subsequently discovered at his apartment. In , taking advantage of increased opportunities to visit the West, Dugin spent most of the year in travels to Western European countries. It was, it appears, to a significant extent as a result of these contacts with the European Nouvelle Droite that Dugin became into a fascist theorist.
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John B. Dunlop is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution. His current research focuses on the conflict in Chechnya, Russian politics since , Russia and the successor states of the former Soviet Union, Russian nationalism, and the politics of religion in Russia.
One perceptive observer of the Russian political scene, Francoise Thom, noted as far back as that fascism, and especially its "Eurasianist" variant, was displacing Russian nationalism among statist Russian elites as a post-communist "Russian Idea," especially in the foreign policy sphere.
Euras[ianism] brings an ideological foundation for post-Soviet imperialism. He is said to have mastered at least nine of them. While still a teenager, he joined a secretive group of Moscow intellectuals interested in mysticism, paganism, and fascism. Both the "masters" of this group and their "disciples" engaged, inter alia, in translating the works of foreign writers who shared their interests. As one of his contributions, Dugin completed a translation of a book by the Italian pagan- fascist philosopher Julius Evola.
Dugin is reported to have been detained by the KGB for participating in this study group, and forbidden literature was subsequently discovered at his apartment. According to one account, he then was expelled from the Moscow Aviation Institute, where he had enrolled as a student some time in the late s.
According to another account, he eventually managed to graduate from the institute. In , taking advantage of increased opportunities to visit the West, Dugin spent most of the year traveling to Western European countries. It appears that, largely as a result of these contacts with the European Nouvelle Droite, Dugin became a fascist theorist. It is this concept that identifies Dugin unequivocally as a fascist.
He formed an association with "statist patriots" in the communist camp and was, for a brief period, close to the Genadii Zyuganov, the leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.
It combines the ancient Greek words arktos north and gea or gaia land , a reference to the vanished polar continent that was supposedly the original home of the Aryans. The new organization appears to have been more influenced by German than by Russian national Bolshevism.
In that same year, he published his Foundations of Geopolitics, one of the more influential works of the post- communist period. It appears to have been written with the assistance of General Nikolai Klokotov of the General Staff Academy, who served as an official consultant to the project.
Seleznev was chairman or "speaker" of the Russian State Duma and a major player in Russian politics. In his introduction to the volume, Dugin wrote that Trubetskoi "can be termed the Eurasian Marx. In an article in Zavtra, he speculated that this new center might shortly become "an analytical instrument of the Eurasian Platform for, simultaneously, the Presidential Administration, the Government of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation, and the State Duma.
Whereas in his book, Konspiralogiya, Dugin had criticized the secret police for perceived "Atlanticist," that is, pro-American and pro-British sympathies, he now toasted the KGB the initials he preferred to FSB as "a new caste, a new social stratum" called upon both to hold the line against "American hegemony" and to "recreate a mighty Eurasian sovereign state" which would include all of the CIS republics.
Pavlovskii, the creator of several influential pro-Kremlin Web sites, agreed. Commenting on this burgeoning relationship, journalist Andrei Kolesnikov remarked: "Extreme right ideology is not only turning into the dominant view in Russian publications and state rhetoric, it is also becoming fashionable in a salon sense.
The prophecy of [French conspiratologist] Jean Parvulesco has come to pass There will be a Eurasian millennium.
The congress took place in a hall belonging to the "Honor and Dignity" Club, a group of veterans of the special services and law enforcement organizations. Petr Suslov, also a former Vympel member and a retired colonel in the SVRY, played an even more noteworthy role at the congress. Suslov served as head of the committee that organized the congress and then was elected deputy leader of the new movement with Dugin chosen as the leader.
Retiring from the SVR in , he had become a consultant on issues relating to the Caucasus for Duma speaker Seleznev, which had provided him with an opportunity to meet Dugin, who was advising Seleznev on geopolitical questions. The two soon realized that they agreed on many key issues. Aleksandr Dugin and the head of Kremlin politico-technology enjoy good, friendly relations. And this support, according to our sources, is not small. The titular co-chairmen of the conference were Seleznev who did not attend and Sheikh Talgat Tadzhuddin, the officially recognized head of the Muslims of Russia and the CIS states.
A belief in the primacy of the rights of the individual over those of the state, journalist Evgenii Ikhlov wrote, would result in the control of civil society over the state. In Russia, by contrast, Ikhlov continued: [O]ur new chief stratum are incapable of ruling under such a democracy Here Eurasianism extraordinarily fits the bill.
It offers the following: an authoritarian-charismatic autocratic model; selfless and ascetical serving of the regime as the highest form of valor the messianic great power syndrome ; the agreement of ethnic and religious minorities to play a subordinate role; and imperial xenophobia.
He answered: "Here [in Dugin-style Eurasianism] there are ideas which meet the psychological needs of society: there is an alternative to the failed love affair with the West; there is the [Russian] tradition of messianism; and there is the proximity of Asia Historically speaking, fascist thought more than once has resulted in explosive expansionism. Dugin apparently does not fear war in the least, but he would prefer to achieve his geopolitical goals without resorting to it.
Drawing on the extensive twentieth-century literature on geopolitics--and especially on the interwar German school of Karl Haushofer--Dugin posits a primordial, dualistic conflict between "Atlanticism" seafaring states and civilizations, such as the United States and Britain and "Eurasianism" land- based states and civilizations, such as Eurasia-Russia.
Beginning in , it became clear that "no- one in the Soviet leadership was capable of explaining the logic of traditional [Soviet] foreign policy and, as a result, there took place the lightning-fast destruction of the gigantic Eurasian organism Hitler disregarded the advice of Karl Haushofer and other specialists when he decided to invade the Soviet Union in In similar fashion, a "certain secret department of the GRU" and other voices had been advocating a "Eurasian" course for the USSR, but their advice went unheeded As Dugin sees it, the "project" that Westernizing Russian reformers attempted to implement during the Gorbachev and Yeltsin years by now has been discredited fully: "This project denies such values as the people, the nation, history, geopolitical interests, social justice, the religious factor, etc.
Dugin emphasizes that the current Russian Federation, which appeared in from under the rubble of the USSR, is not a full-fledged state, but rather "a transitional formation in the broad and dynamic global geopolitical process" The new states that have come into existence in the space of the former Soviet Union also do not, with the sole exception of Armenia, possess any markings of authentic statehood Instead they represent artificial, ephemeral political constructs. The ethnic Russian people, in contrast, are seen as "the bearers of a unique civilization.
The Russian people, Dugin insists, can serve only as the core ethnos of a vast empire: "[T]he Russian people i. Russia never made its goal the creation of a mono-ethnic, racially uniform state" Such a repudiation would be tantamount to national suicide" Deprived of an empire, Russians will "disappear as a nation" The result of such a rebuilding effort would be "a giant continental state in the administration of which they [Russians] will play the central role" This ethnic model, Dugin notes, is quite similar to that of the former Soviet Union.
In order to facilitate the recreation of a vast Russian-dominated continental empire, Dugin advocates the unleashing of Russian nationalist sentiment, but of a specific type.
Religious sentiment, Dugin urges, should be placed front and center: "Russians should realize that they are Orthodox in the first place; [ethnic] Russians in the second place; and only in the third place, people" There is a need, Dugin insists, for the "total churchification" of Russians, for the Russian nation to become viewed simply as "the Church" Such an emphasis, he believes, should--together with a persistent focus on the glorious past and bright future of the Russian nation--help bring about the "demographic upsurge" so desperately needed by Russians today.
Economic incentives by themselves will prove insufficient to promote such an upsurge One "radical" slogan, Dugin concludes, must be consistently put forward: "The nation is everything; the individual is nothing" Gutting Atlanticism Employing the "strategy of the Anaconda" a term borrowed by Dugin from inter-war German geopoliticians used in reference to Britain , the United States and its close allies are seen as exerting unrelenting pressure on all Eurasian coastal zones , Following precepts enunciated by Francis Fukuyama among others, the United States seeks to implant its own political and economic model throughout the globe How is a revived Eurasian--Russian empire to bring about "the geopolitical defeat of the U.
An appropriate response to the looming Atlanticist threat, Dugin contends, is for the renascent Eurasian-Russian empire to direct all of its powers short of igniting a hot war , as well as those of the remainder of humanity, against the Atlanticist Anaconda. The anti-Americanism of the Japanese, "who remember well the nuclear genocide and the disgrace of political occupation," must be unleashed, as well as the fervent anti- Americanism of fundamentalist Muslim Iranians , To induce the Anaconda to release its grip on the coastline of Eurasia, it must be attacked relentlessly on its home territory, within its own hemisphere, and throughout Eurasia.
Within the United States itself, there is a need for the Russian special services and their allies "to provoke all forms of instability and separatism within the borders of the United States it is possible to make use of the political forces of Afro-American racists " It would also make sense simultaneously to support isolationist tendencies in American politics" He believes that this could happen unexpectedly, as occurred with the sudden collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the USSR.
Expelled from the shores of Eurasia, the United States would then be required to "limit its influence to the Americas" With regard to the future of Europe, Dugin writes: "The task of Moscow is to tear Europe away from the control of the U.
Eurasia needs a united, friendly Europe" In advocating this path, Dugin appears to be influenced by the writings of the European New Right, which from the s on, argued for "the strict neutrality of Europe and its departure from NATO" The basis of the Moscow-Berlin axis, Dugin writes, will be "the principle of a common enemy [that is, the United States]" As a result of a Grand Alliance between Russia and Germany, the two countries will divvy up the territories lying between them into de facto spheres of dominance.
There is to be no "sanitary cordon. Russia and Germany together, he insists, "must decide all disputed questions together and in advance" The integration of swaths of Western and Central European territory into a German sphere of dominance will be encouraged directly and abetted by Eurasia-Russia. The formation of a "Franco- German bloc" especially is to be supported Only Britain, "an extraterritorial floating base of the U. Moving eastward, Dugin proposes offering Germany de facto political dominance over most Protestant and Catholic states located within Central and Eastern Europe.
The "unstable" state of Finland, which "historically enters into the geopolitical space of Russia" is seen as an exception In this instance, Dugin proposes that Finland be combined together with the Karelian Autonomous Republic of the Russian Federation into a single ethnoterritorial formation "with maximal cultural autonomy, but with strategic integration into the Eurasian bloc" A "special status," on the other hand, should be accorded to both Latvia and Lithuania, which suggests that they are to be allocated to the Eurasian-Russian sphere.
Poland, too, is to be granted such a "special status" With regard to the Balkans, Dugin assigns "the north of the Balkan peninsula from Serbia to Bulgaria" to what he terms the "Russian South" In similar fashion, Moldova is seen as a part of what Dugin calls "the Russian South" On the key question of Ukraine, Dugin underlines: "Ukraine as a state has no geopolitical meaning.
It has no particular cultural import or universal significance, no geographic uniqueness, no ethnic exclusiveness" However, as we have seen, for Dugin all such "sanitary cordons" are inadmissible. Dugin speculates that three extreme western regions of Ukraine--Volynia, Galicia, and Trans- Carpathia--heavily populated with Uniates and other Catholics, could be permitted to form an independent "Western Ukrainian Federation.
With the exception of these three western regions, Ukraine, like Belorussia, is seen as an integral part of Eurasia-Russia. At one point in his book, Dugin confides that all arrangements made with "the Eurasian bloc of the continental West," headed by Germany, will be merely temporary and provisional in nature.
As in the case of Germany, Japan is to be offered an imperial Grand Bargain. Dugin recommends that the Kuriles be restored to Japan as Kaliningrad is to be restored to Germany
Werdegang[ Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten ] Dugin entstammt einer Soldatenfamilie. Dieser war einer seiner wichtigsten Mentoren. Buchladen , namens Arktogeya und einen geopolitischen Thinktank. Die heutige Situation ist anders.
Aleksandr Dugin’s Foundations of Geopolitics
Memory Laws, Memory Wars. I do not think that Dugin has any influence over Putin. Foundations of Geopolitics — Wikipedia I believe we can gropolitics better. The China thing is in response to the humiliation the Russian got in from the energy deal. Under both these visions, we can see how Russia stands to benefit from a fractured EU — it is there main strategic competitor to the West. You are thinking in too grand terms.