Zulusida It is not impossible that the Chaldeans spoke Aramaic, or a dialect of that language, at this time. Inschriften von Nabuchodonosor, Konig von Babylon v. Although cities had on occasion supported Chaldean rulers— for example, Merodach-Baladan II and Nabu-mukin-zeri — against Assyria in the past, not once during the years were the various groups able to present a united front against Assyria. Assyrian rulers carried babylnoia ambitious building programmes in their cities particularly Babylpn, Borsippa, Nippur, and Sippar and often granted special privileges to them and their citizens. The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia.
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Balkan, , pp. Balkan, , p. This form resembles the much later Greek name Kossaioii, Lat. Coss a ei, Cossiaei, etc. The original abodes of the Kassites are not known. The commonly held opinion that they originated from the Zagros mountains east of Babylonia see, e. Sassmannshausen , pp. The Kassites seem to be relatively new to the region, in view of the fact that they do not appear among the peoples who inhabited the central and southern Zagros according to Sargonic and Ur III sources.
In addition, no Kassite anthroponyms and toponyms are recorded in these regions according to the above-mentioned early sources. Several suspected Kassite names are recorded in Ur III economic documents from southern Babylonia, but it is not known whence these individuals originally came Zadok, , p.
The documentation from Old Babylonian Susa would have strengthened the case for the Zagros as the original country of the Kassites, were it not limited, undated, and to some extent of questionable interpretation Zadok, , p. The fact that the river ordeal, which in the Old Babylonian period is mainly recorded in texts from Susa, has become more common in Babylonia during the Kassite than in the preceding Old Babylonian period may point to an origin of the Kassites east of Babylonia, but is not conclusive evidence.
There is good reason for thinking that the Kassites were once neighbors of Indo-Europeans, in view of some affinities between their pantheon and the Indo-Aryan one see Bloomfield, ; Balkan, , p. Brinkman , p. De Smet , p. The Kassite penetration into Mesopotamia. Thereafter, Kassite groups and individuals are recorded in northern Babylonia, especially around Sippar Yahrurum see Zadok, , pp. This negative find, compared with the hypothetical appearance of Kassite names in the documents from Old Babylonian Susa, may strengthen the case for an eastern origin of the Kassites.
Agum the prince? Charpin, Richardson , p. Their communication with the authorities was facilitated by translators, who also acted as informers. Already at that time they could purchase land and acted as officials, especially in horse breeding Heinz, , p. Many of them were integrated in the Babylonian social structure De Smet, , p. The anonymity of most of the Kassites in late Old Babylonian sources is not greatly remedied by the new occurrences from the unpublished texts evaluated by Richardson , pp.
Since they had chariots, they were not nomadic, but were fully settled in segregated rural encampments. The foreign inhabitants of the fortresses, who were mercenaries rather than foreign invaders forming a garrison system, gradually controlled the countryside of northern Babylonia.
This region became increasingly unsafe, especially during the reign of Samsuditana, the last ruler of the Hammurabi dynasty. They eventually detached themselves from the Babylonian state and its urban centers, probably because they were unpaid or unprovisioned. In addition, they had neither cultic nor familial ties with the northern Babylonian temple cities see Richardson, , pp.
Gasche et al. They date the fall of Babylon to ca. However, P. Huber rejects the astronomical evidence adduced by Gurzadyan in Gasche et al. However, Huber , p. The Character of the Kassite rule in Babylonia the chronology follows Boese, ; cf. Brinkman, The first-millennium Babylonian King Lists assign the Kassite dynasty the longest rule of all the other dynasties who ruled Babylonia: 36 kings who ruled for years and nine months.
Its end is dated to BCE. Adding the years given by the King List to that date would place the beginning of the dynasty in the 18th century BCE, when rulers of the Hammurabi dynasty controlled Babylon. Therefore it is clear that the King List includes ancestors of the Kassite kings cf.
Van De Mieroop, , pp. The emergence of the Kassite state took place in the 16th and 15th centuries BCE, which are almost devoid of documentation. During the 16th century BCE. Babylonia was divided into two kingdoms, that of the Kassites in the north and the Sealand in the south, including Uruk, Ur, and Larsa. Dilmun modern Bahrain in the Persian Gulf was ruled by a Kassite governor. Babylonia was recognized as a great power by the other Near Eastern powers, namely, its neighbors and Egypt, according to the Amarna correspondence.
The correspondence is mainly concerned with diplomatic marriages. Sassmannshausen, , p. The rulers of the successive three post-Kassite dynasties ca. Under the later Kassite kings political authority was weakened as peripheral provinces detached themselves from effective state control see Brinkman, , pp. The demise of the Kassite dynasty was caused mainly by external factors.
After acting as king of Babylon for a year BCE , Tukulti-Ninurta I appointed a succession of puppet rulers, who controlled Babylonia for a decade. But the Kassites resumed control of Babylonia thanks to Elamite pressure and a successful Babylonian rebellion. The Kassites strove to be integrated in the culture of the conquered land. Kassite rulers built temples to Babylonian deities.
Kassite traditions endured mostly in the private and familial spheres see Heinz, , p. The Kassite rulers encouraged the collection, codification, and canonization of Babylonian religious-literary texts. The Kassites left no cultural impact in Babylonia. The Kassite termini surviving in Akkadian are mainly from the realms of horse breeding and chariot building.
Most of the documentation ca. NA of Nippur see Balkan, , p. The documents reveal a centralized administration under the governor of Nippur and its province. Balkan , pp. The office of the governor was secular, but he could also serve as the high priest of the Enlil temple Ekur of Nippur. This temple was probably one of the most important institutions of Kassite Babylonia.
There was an intensive connection between the ruling dynasty and the city of Nippur. However, it should be remembered that there are many fewer texts from other parts of the Kassite state. Therefore, it cannot be ruled out that this may be just an accident of documentation. The governor of Nippur was in charge of an economic organization, which collected numerous agricultural deliveries and imposts from broad parts of Babylonia.
The temple gave people loans, possibly in return for labor, which may have led to a situation of indebtedness. Balkan , p. The Kassites hardly penetrated the fields where acquaintance with the scribal art was required. They are recorded as weavers and other textile workers, but are underrepresented in most of the other handicrafts Sassmannshausen, , p.
There is a radical change of the administrative terminology. Many Old Babylonian terms for functionaries do not continue. There are fewer female functionaries and professionals. The administration was directed from the palaces of various cities. Radical changes took place in the military organization as well see Sassmannshausen, , p. The state sector, namely, the royal family, bureaucrats, priests, artisans, and attached labor dependents and slaves of the palaces and temples , seems to have been the dominant one in the economy of Kassite Babylonia.
The private sector, i. They acted along with palatial and temple ones see Edens, , pp. Slavery was common, but not the dominant factor of the workforce. In addition to their original members and dependents, both sectors absorbed prisoners of war, fugitive foreigners. Both sectors were based on the redistributive principle characteristic of Mesopotamian household organization see Edens, , p.
Agriculture was in the hands of many dutiable landowners and their agricultural workers as well as tenants. The landed property was only partially in the hands of Kassites. The Kassite and post-Kassite kings granted land to temples, members of the royal family, and functionaries. Temples were granted whole villages with the tillers, who stood in dependency and an exploitation relationship see Oelsner, a, b.
These grants were recorded on stone stelae sing. In most of the pertinent filiations the father has a Kassite, and the son a Babylonian, name. There are very few filiations with the father bearing a Babylonian name. Several Kassite tribes and clans bore Akkadian and atypical names Sassmannshausen, , pp. As semi-nomads the Kassites were organized in family and tribal units. They continued to refer to such units after they had taken control over cities.
However, tribal organization was not strange to the Babylonian society itself also in the Middle Babylonian period see Sassmannshausen, , p. Kassites played a central role in the military. They are well represented among the great landowners. On the other hand, they are not underrepresented in the ration lists, which points to their presence in the lower echelons of the society.